Skip to main content

Full text of "The tomb of Siphtah : the monkey tomb and the gold tomb ; the discovery of the tombs"

See other formats

D D 



D D D 






^IV' ^"'-^ 




^1 bMESE 



Painted by E. IJnrold Jones 
























WiiSlilKeiOII m^i COLLECE 


81 ^ 





Pkeface : BY Theodore M. Davis 

List of Plates and Illustrations ....... 

King Siphtah and Queen Tauosrit : by Professor Gaston Maspero 

The Finding of the Tomb of Siphtah ; the Unnamed Gold Tomb 
AND the Animal Pit Tombs : by Theodore M. Davis 

The Excavations during the Winters of 1905, 1906 : by T. M. Davis 
AND E. Pt. Aykton 

The To jib of Siphtah Merenptah 

Private Tom 12s 

The Tomb of Rameses Mentuherkhepshef : (No. 19) by E. R. Ayrton 

The Un'xamed Gold Tomb . 

Catalogue of Jewels and Pkectous Ob.iects found in the 
FuxVERary Deposit of Setui II and Tauo-srit . . . . 










v^i5 8^5 


I DESIRE to renew my expression of gratitude to Monsieur Maspero for his 
kindness in writing the Life of Siphtah. 

I also congratulate E. Harold Jones upon his artistic success as evidenced 
by the reproductions of his drawings. 



Rhode Island, 

U.S.A. * 



Entrance to the Tomb of King Siphtah 
King Siphtah making Offerings to Horus . 
The Flight of the Evil Demons befoise the Sun 
Ceiling in Main Cokridok 



Ceremonial Wig Ornaments . 

Ceremonial Wig Ornaments . 

Silver Bracelets of Queen Tauostut 

Silver Bracelets of Queen TauosrIt . 

EiNGS AND Ornaments of Queen Tauosrit 

Silver Hand Coverings of Queen Tauosrit 

Gold Diadem of Queen TauosrIt . 

Gold Bracelets and Ornaments of Queen TAUOSRiT 

Ornaments of Queen TAUositiT .... 

Plaques and Ornaments of Queen Tauosrit 

Amulets and IIings of Queen Tauoskit 

Pendants and Carnelian Amulets of Queen 'J'auosrIt 

Gold Necklace of Queen Tauosrit 

Fragment of Mud with Gold Beads in position . 

Silver Sandal 

Al end of Volume 

Vase of Glazed Faience, with Cartouches of SetuI II 

Vase of Alabaster 

Alabaster Vases with Cartouche of Eameses II 


Mummies of Monkeys 

Mummies of Monkeys 

Dog and Monkey, from Tomb No. 50 . 

At eiul of Volume. 


Plan and Section of the Tomb of King Siphtah . 
Plan and Section or the Tomb of Mentuherkhepshef. 
Plan of the Unnamed Gold Tomb (No. 56) . 






G. ]\IA8PER0. 

The liistorv of King Siplitali ;iu(l of (^u'cii Tauosvit consists for the time 
being of a very few facts founded on a- very few inoniunents, and a 
consideraltle nnniljei' of ]iyj)otheses wliicli liave hcen suggested, Ity tlie study 
of those few nionnnicnts, to tlu' modern writers on Egv]it. 


Tlie protocol of Sii)lita]i, as fir as we Icnow it, was at tlie end of liis reign : 


;' or, in Ins toml), K^ 


D 8 ^=1 O D 

y, witli some gra])liic variations sucli as 

\'^W iind ^^ intercalated in the name. It a])pears from two monuments, 
one of which was misunderstood l)y me when lirst discovered,- that, in the 
beginning of Ids reign, he was called for a short time [ ^|1i^?° Ij Harnesses 
Siplitah, instead of Menei)htah Sijihtah, I)ut we are still in the dark about 
the motives wliicli made him sid)stitute the i)renomen of Setui I to the 
f imily name of llnmses. 

1 LepsiuRi, Konif/diiirh, PI. XXXV I, Xo. 484 : lli;)uiiant-]5nigseli, £<■ Li ore (/r.s- Hois, p. SO, 
No. 507. 

'' BccALcil dc Tmram; t. XVII, p. 102, note 1, '/' p. x.\ xxi of the present volume. 



umwH scb^E mm 



TIr' protocol of Taiiosi'it was unkiiowii tor a loiii:- time: Ijcpsiiis iii\cs it as 
l^^^f'^.^iPsI 'raiiosrif, or, iiioro exactly, luiKisrit: Tctric (lis- 
co\crc(l it in tlK> ruins of licr riiiicrarv t('iui)lc at Slu'ikli AlKl-cl-(Jiirnali under 

the form : "A 


"^^-^ r ^ "I J^ i^ T- Sitrijia-Maiamduti^ Taiiosrit ^ffiiiiKiiif, Avith nnini]ioi'tant 
graphic variants. The full form of the name. ^^^IPT"^ instead of 
^'^<=, is generally used on the nionumoits, Imt Petrie gave a very good 
reason to explain the \vay it is written on tlu' objects of the fonndation 
deposits, when he says that "the form of the cartouclies is manifestly 
•• co])ied lioni those of lianiessn II, and ingeniously adapted as a i)arody or 
•■ imitation of what was already so utterly familiar to the eyes of every 
"Egyptian in those times.""^ 


That Siphtidi was not in the direct line of succession was seen a long 
time ago hv E. de Kouge, '' and has heen generally admitted since, but Ave do 
not know exactly how he came to be king, lionge was the first to i)rove 
that Siphtah and Amenmeses formed, so to say, a small dynasty intercalated 
in the XlXth Dvnastv, between ^lenephtah and Setiii II. Anienmeses had 
i)receded Siphtah on the throne, for, on a. scene of adoration which is 
represented in the colonnade of the temple at (iurnah, his names liave been 
erased and re])laced by the cartouches of Sijihtah.'' The inscription which 
was engraved undei- the scene stated that he had been bj-oiight up by the 
limitless Isis, in the town of ^^l^^ Khebit, and Si])]itah, on his part, had 

adopted for his Ilorus-name Q^l^ "risen at Khebit,'"" which ])ointed to 
his cominu' 1i-oni the same city as his jjredecessor : Ivouge, assuming Khebit 

1 Lep-sius, Koa'Kjdmrli, I'l. X.XXVII. Xu. -iS."] ; IJcuuiiint-linigsL'li, Lc Lierc dcs lioif:, p. 80, 

>;o. 50S. 

- retric, ,S7,/- Tniqiks at Tkchcs, IM. X\'I, X\\\. 

» Ibid., p. 15. 

•' E. do lloiigi'', Etiiilc snr unc sidle de la Lihliol/icqne Inqxlrialc, pp. 1S5-1S8. 

° Lepsius, Vcmindlcr, III, '20lr. 

to l)(' i'l-llil)cli. soiitli of Im'sIhi (»ii the (■;i>t('i-ii luiiik ol'tlic Xilc, siipjioscd that 
the two kh\'j:s licloimcd to a lifaiicli ol' the liaincssidc fauiily, wliicli hail 
received that town as an ai)paiiage. iicrhaps in tlic time of llanises JI. Now. 
in an inscviiition at Silsilch/ and in another at Assnan.' a pilu'ase ociauTcd 
wJiic'h seemed to sav tliat a lii.iili I'unetionary. named liamses Klianniontiron 
Bayi. liad "conrii'med tlie King Siphtali on tlie throne of his t'atlier"": it was 
not niniatnral to eonelnde iVom the terms used hy tlie redaetor of the 
inscription, that the lirst kin^■ from i\hel»it was father to the second, in other 
words that Siphtali was the son of Amemneses. The snccession of the 
Pharaohs was therefore, according' to Itonu'es scheme: — 


Sethiti II 


AA/h Di/MOS/i/. 




Dijiiroifi/ of Kliihll. 



His liypotlieses about Ameinneses's and Siphtah's origin were immediately 
admitted as facts, lint his classification of tlie kings was rejected very soon. 
He had given as a reason to show the }»recedeiice of Siphtali (»ver Setni II. the 
l)reseuce in Siphtah's toinh of the cartouches of Setui II." iMseiilohr declared 

that ChamiH)lli(jn had confounded the prenomen of .Vekhtseti ^^m with t 

very similar iirenoinen of St'tui II ^J_/,>|^[, and, ideiititying Amemneses and 
Tauosrit with the Ameiiniesses and Thouoris, who are the last kings of the 
XlXth Dynasty in the extracts of ^lauetho by Africanus and Eusebius, he 
transferred them after Setui II.'* He had a, special motive for wishing that 
this arrangnanent shoidd prevail : he imagined that either Amemneses or 
Siphtali might be held for the Syrian chief Avho invaih-d Kgyi)t about that 
time, and who was no other than the Osarsiph of the Mauethonian legend.' 

1 CliampoUion, Monainent^, I'l. CXX, 4; Lepsius, Dcnlm., HI, lii)2'(. 

- Champollioii, Monuments de I'Efjyptc ct dc la A'ublr, TeHc, LI, p. 2U; Lepsius, Dvakm.., Ill, 
202c; J. de Morgan, dc lafroiditre d'Efjyptr d Koui-Omlo, p. 2.S, no. G. 

^ Champollioii, Monumcids dc I'Uf/i/jjtc, t. I, p. 4.31. 

■' Eisenlohr, On the Political Condition of Egypt before the Fwiyn of Uaia>ics II, in Transact ions 
of the Society of Bihlical Archaroloyy, t. I, i)p. oTO-IjTS. 

° Ibid., p. 378 sq(/. 

This |i;irt of Kisculolirs tlicoi'v was not acccptcil. lint most Egyptologists 
concuri't'd in ailopliiig liis classilicatioii of tlic last Pliaraolis of tlic 
dynasty : 


.Setui II Diinnsti/ cf Kliihit. 



XXth DijiKisI ij. 



Eamses Til' 

Most of tlie recent writers do not jircss it too nincli, and content tlieinselves 
witli einmciating it snnnnarily : oidy Petrie has tried to gi^'e it an elaborate 
form and to evolve from it tlie wliole history of tlie jjcriod. His views are 
most comjjletely exposed in tlie third volume of his Histovji of Egjipt." 
According to him, "Sety II was the lieir of Menephtah (Xaville, Biihastis, 
"]). 45). Amenmeses came before 8i])htah, see the rensed stele (Lepsius, 
" Denhuii,ler,\\\, 'l(.)\c). Tausert was before >Si]ihtali by her scarab in his 
"deposit (Petrie, Sit:, Temples at Thehes^ p. 1.3), and also with him l)y their 
"joint tend). Si])htah was id'ter Sety II by Sety's wine-jars in Siphtah's 
"deposit (Petrie, Six Temples, V\. W\). And Setmrht was after Si])litah 
" b_v nsnr])ing his tondi." Taking those assertions as ascertained facts he 
then ])roceeds to deductions and calculations. Thus, Setui II. born about 
1270 B.C., married about oi' after l:^.")!) one of his aunts, a younger daughter 
of Ramses II, Takhait. by whom he had issue. Amenmeses, Avho succeeded 
him in ll^Kl: but he had. b\' anotliei- wife, a daughtei'. Taiiosrit. and two 
sons, Siphtah and Setneclit.' Tauosrit began carving her tomb during her 
father's life about 1212, but. though slie was the rightful heiress to the 
throne, she was set aside by her half-brother Amenmeses: Amenmesess 
reicn was short : he died in his second Aear about 1209, aued 37 vears, and 
Tauosrit. coming to her I'ights. niari'ietl her brotliei- Si])htah. In Siplitah's 

' Cliabiis, liir/inr/irs pour f'his/oijv ile Ik XIX IJ/Jikis/ ii\ i>]i. 114--lL'0; iJlugsch, Gcschichfr 
jEciyptcn.!i,-p. 585: AViedeiaaiiii, ^'///^(^iscAc Geschichte, p. 4S1 ; Ivl. Meyer, Gcsrliichtc dcs Altai 
JEffyptcnx, p. MOS ; Mas])ero, Histoirr an.cicnnc dcs ^viipka dr VOricnt cliissiip/e, t. IF, p. 438-440. 

' Flinders Petrie, A Hintori/ of E(jypt, vol. Ill, pp. 117-133. 

' This statement I take from page 122; in page 136, I'etrie deiUiees fnim ilu' shape nf llie 
nioutli, hiitli (if Takhait and Selneclit, that Setiiecht was the son of Takhait. 

sixth year and Taiiosrit's ci^ii-litli year, Sclucclil liccaiiic kiiii: iii their stead 
and took their tonilis. I'eti'ie's exposition is not a mere sketcli of possible 
events, sueli as we lind in most of tlie Ilislancs of lyivpt : it is a Inll 
reconstitntion, complete in all details, even to the year some of \\n' 
])ersonages were horn and the age at wliich they died. It is fonnded partly 
on the facts and theories which had l)een cinivnt in Egy])to]ogy for half 
a century, partly on nt-w facts and theories which I'etrie elicited from 
monuments found in his excavations. It takes into account Kouges 
hypothesis ahoiit Khehit. and Eisenlohr's ideas al)ont the ndative jjositions 
of 8etui 11 and the Khel)it (haiasty, and he is so absolutely certain that 
Setui II was a predecessor of Siphtah that, tinding on ostraca which bear a 
(lat(> and the name of this king a mention of the garden of Setui ^lenei)litah, 
he never doubted that it ap])lied to the second Setui, when he ought to have 
at least discussed the ]»o.ssibility of its belonging to Setui 1. 

<^iite recently two .scholars took u]) Uouge's theory again. Breasted' 
and ^lasjtero.- coi'i'ecting, however, such ])oints in it whiidi are not in 
agreement with the actual data of Egyptology. As we have seen, Uouge 
had interpreted literally the mention of the town Kliel)it wliich occiuTed in 
tlie texts relating to Amenmeses and Siphtah. Chal)as hinted thirty^ years 
ago that they contained a mere mythological allusion to the birth and youth 
of Horns, son of Isis. llorus had beeu born, educated, and ])roclaimed king, 
in the swani]»s of the J)elta, in Kliel)it, which is Bouto and the marshy lands 
near 15outo. .Maspero showed that the kings who. being not legitimate heirs 
to the throne, had been raised to it in the course of time, were accustomed 
to compare their hinnble youth to the youth of the chilil llorus : thus 
Thutmosis III says of him.self that he was ••like the baby llorus in Khebit,"' 
meaning, not, as Brugsch assumed, that he had been relegated in the marsh- 
land in order to be out of the sight of the jjeople,'' but that he had been, 
when a. little child, defraiideil of his rights, as llorus had l)een defrauded of 
his by Set-Typhon. The j)hrase in Amenmeses's inscription which has given 
rise to so many speculations was merely intt'uded to convey a somewhat 
similar impivssion to the minds of the readers : it signified that AuK'nmeses 
had lieen kept out of what he considered being his lawful inheritanc^e, by 
his ])redecessor. Perhaps he was the son of one of the eldest sons of 

1 Breasted, Anficnt Rmirils, vol. Ill, pp. 274-279, and A History of Eijupf, jip. 472, 473. 
- jMasi)ero, Notes sur differcnts jmiuts dans la ZcUschrlft, 1882, p. Voi, Histoirc Ancicimc, 
t. II, p. 2ri4, note 2, and Histoiir d (s peiqjlcs de rOricnt, 1906, p. 254, n. 2, 4;j9, n. 4. 
•* Brug.sch, Gi'sidiirhtc xEijijittnui, pp. 288, 289. 

— XTIII — 

Kamses II, wlio dii'd wliilc tlicii' father ^vas still liviii,u', and whose faiiiil\' had 
heeii set aside l)y Menei)htah. Breasted, on his part, adoi)ting- ^lasperos 
views as Budge had done already,' went a point farther. liougi' liad 
asserted that Siphtah owed liis i)Ower to Bayi's infiuence. The two rock- 
inscriptions wliich lu' hi-oiight over in proof of his opinion are to he found, 
the first at Silsileh and the second at Assnaii. At (Jehel-Silsileh, Siphtah is 
represented olfering flowers to Anionra, King of the Nine (iods ; Bayi stands 
behind him in his robes of office, and above them both runs the following 
inscrii)tion : — 

I I I 

"Glory to Amonra, jjroscynem to his double, that he may i)rotect his son 
" King Akherres, that (both the (lod and the king) may give him the 
" favours of the true-hearted, and the rewards of those who act according 
'"to truth, an existence of hajipiness with rejoicings, a joyful heart, a 
" continuity of health, to the double of the chief overseer of the treasury 
" of the A\ hole land whom the king established on the .seat of his father 
" ivhom he loved, Bayi." '" 

At Assufai, the king is sitting on his throne, and the Viceroy of Knsliu, 
Setui, is standing in front of him in the attitude of adoration : — 


'"Glory to thee, Mighty King,' [so sa.ys] the Viceroy of Kushu, overseer 
" of the gold-countries of Anion, feather fan-l)earer on the king's right 
"hand, chief-niajordomo of the king, royal scribt" of the archives of 
"Pharaoh, life, health, strength, tSetui." 

1 BudgH, A History of Erjypt, vol. V, pp. lo8, lu9 ; Breasted, Autind Ikcords, vol. Ill, p. 270, 
uote ft; A Hvitory of Eyypt, pp. 472-473. 

- Champollion, Monuments dc I'Eyyptc, T'l. CXX, 4; Lepsius, Dcnhmukr, III, 202rt. 

\]-<\\\ is st;iii(liiiU' erect lieliiiid his kiiiu' :- 



" Signet-liearer ol' the K'uvj^ of Lower l^ii'vpl, inii(|iie IVieiid, wlio ])iit aside 
"fraud and gives truth, ii^hom the kiiif/ established [oif] the seat of his 
''father, cliief-overseer of tlie treasury of tlie whole laud, Kamses 
'■ Khauieiioutirou lja}'i." ' 

The graunuar of the phrase which liouge translated e.stahl/shiii;/ the hiia/ 
oil the seat of Jiis Jalher is rather suspicious, l)ut I douht not that Breasted is 
right in rendering it lehoiii the hiia/ estatjlishcf/ in the seat of his father,' niid in 
asserting that liouge's h_ypothesis ahout the king owing his crown to Bayi 
is without foundation for the present. ]5ayi was assuredly a, very influential 
])erson in the State, as is ])roved Iiy the i)resence of his toml) amongst the 
Biban el .Molouk ; hut if his action ^vas decisive in raising Sii)litah to the 
throne, which is ])OssiI)le, Ave find no proof of it in tlie two graffiti, nor in any 
other monument. 

U}i to Petrie's time Tauosrit had not been the subject of many conjectures. 
It had been recognized from the first that she was the wife of tSii)htah, and 
tliat slie had rights of her own superior to his. We have seen that Petrie 
believes her to be a, daughter of Setui II. But, on the pair of sihci- bracelets 
which Davis found in 1!)U8, she is re})resented giving a drink to him, with the 
title of 1 ■=> "great royal wife," and no other one. Why she should have 
been termed thus and not "royal daughter," if .she had been his daughter 
and not his wifi', it is not easy to see. If we consider the evidence of the 
few momuuents which remain of her, we find on them nothing to opjwse the 
conclusion that she really was his wife. In her tomb she a]»i)ears with 
Siphtah, as it was to be expecte(l since she had been Si])litah's (|ueen ; but in 
some places tlie name of Siplitah has been era.sed and replaced by that of 
iSetui II, thus showing that »Setui had succeeded her former husband, and that 
her relation to both was the same: when Siplitah died she must have married 
Setui II. This agreeing completely with liouge's general ai'rangement, we 

1 Chaiiipullioii, M.,nvmr,ih, t. I, p. 214; Lepsius, Dnilcmalcr, III, 202r; J. de Morgan, dc I, 
frontiirc d'Eimptc a Ktnii-Omho, p. 28, w. G ; with Kueh emendations as were uecessaiy. 
- Breasted, Antinit llcronli, vol. Ill, pp. 274, 27.5, 278, 270. 


may assume that we shall not be very far from the reality if we admit the 
succession to Iv.iYe been : 


Setui II 






The reig'ii of Si])htah ami Taiiosrit was not xcvy louu' : the latest date is 
said to l)e in the sixth year lor Siphtah ' and in the eii;hth year for Tauosrit," 
but we shall see that tliis last year does not belona' to the (jueen. The state- 
ment of Manetlio that King Tliouoris reigned seven years agrees with these 
data, but Manetho here, as elsewhere, has ijuoted names or facts taken from 
historical novels in the place of the real I'acts or names of histor}' : his King 
Thouoris is a very poor substitute for (^leen Tauosrit. and it is safer not to 
attach too much ini])ortance to his testimony in the present instance. 

The in'incipal facts in the reign of Siphtah are connected with Xul)ia, and 
recorded by gratiiti which some hii>h-otticers left on the rocks or in the 
tem])les at (iebel-Silsileh, the First Cataract, Amada, Ibsanibid, or Ouady- 
Ilalfali. Several of those l)ear dates, which may serve to cla.ssify tiie 

I. Graffiti of tue 1st Ye.vr. — There are two of them, one at Ib.sambul 
and one at Onady-Halfah. 

The Ib.sambul gratfito is engraved on tlu' south wall of the small enclosure 
which extends between the jjcdcstal of tlie southernmost colossus and the 
rock in which the temple is cut. Amoura, lord of Karnak, *-^(]g^^ffl^^^ 
is represented on the right side, standing, with the two feathcn-s on his head, 
and the sceptre | and the -r in his hands : the figure of a man is 
.standing on the leit side, with both hands raised in adoration, in the big wig 
and flowing robes of the XlXth Dynasty. An in.scription in four vertical 
lines is engraved between the two iifiures : — 

' Sayce, Gleanings fro/n the Lund of E(ji/pt, in Iitcveil de I'ntvcnu, t. XVII, p. 161 ; '/. p. x.\iv. 
- Daressy, Ostmca, p. 74, No. 2.5293; c/. p. xxvii. 

p^^^ , \ n Q 


cK=cn I 






g^°^^ I 


Cl I 



The l;ist cliaractcr in the riiiii' is more like the .uod Set tlian tlie god Plitah 
ill tlic oi-igiiial, having on tlif head wliat niiglit easily 1k' mistaken for tlie 
ears ol' tlie Set-animal, but the retni'ii of the same ring in the Ouady Halfah 

graffito with the name of Phtah written phonetically ^|, is enough to prove 
that we have to do with IMitah aiul not with Set : we must admit, what 
Brugscli had already done, that, in the heginning of his reign, Sij)]itah was 
called, per]ia])s only for a few weeks, llamses-si-Phtidi befoi-e he took liis 
name of Mene])htali-si-Phtali. The inscription translates : — 

" Glory to Anion, that he may grant life, prosperity and health to the double 
" of the King's Messenger to every foreign land, comj^nion to the feet 
"of the Lord of botli lands, bosom-friend of the llorus in his jialace, 
"first charioteer of His Majesty, liahiiahutuf, when his lord came to 
"establish the A-^iceroy of Kushu, Setui. in his office, in the year 1 
" of the King Ramses-si-Phtah." ^ 

The Ouad\ -Halfah uraffito is as follows: — 

Dl I I 

n n ! t!i 


" Year 1 of the Good God Ramses-si-Phtah, giving life. Glory to thy tlouble, 
"Horns, lord of Buhaiii, that he may grant life, i)rosperity and health, 
" efficiency, praises, love to the double of the King's iMessenger to every 

^ Breasted, Antknt Rccorch, vol. Ill, pp. 275, 270. 

2 Sayce, Gleaninysfrum f/n- Lnid of Euypt, in lurueil, t. XVII, \<. 102 ; ';/'. JJreasted, Antknl 
Eecm-ds, vol. Ill, p. 277. 

"foreign laml. ]»ii('st oi' I;iiiliii-Tlii)t. the sciilic Xctcrlio, son of Neferho, 
"scribe of the archives ol' I'lianio, after lie came amongst the praises of 
"the Nubian cliieftains, and hr presented tlie Viceroy of Knslui, 8etui, 
"on liis tirst [warlike] expedition." 

These two inscri])tions refer to rlie same event : Siplitah, tlien called 
Ramses-8iphtah, went to Xubia accordinn- to custom in his first year, there 
to ])resent "'^ J ^ to the subjects of Egypt the Viceroy Setui. I feel inclined 
to tliink that the grathto at Ibsambul is anterior by a few days to that at 
Ouady Halfah : Hakhpalnituf says that liis master went to (>stablish Setui 

while Xei'erlio states tliat lie wrote his inscrii)tion after the king 


went g-^ to raise Setui to liis post. 

II. Grafkitf from tjie .Iri) Year. — Tliey are tliree in ninnber. on tlie walls 
of the tem])le at Ouady Halfah. 

The first of them shows tlie iigure of a l)ig ram, *^1^ f f ®®^f V?s3 
"Soul of Mendes, living soul of lia," witli seven vertical lines : — 



^ III I ^^Z^ l 

"Year o under tlie Majesty of King Aklierres-Sijjlitali, came the featlier-fan- 
" bearer on the king's right hand. Royal Scribe, overseer of the two 
"white houses, Royal Scril>e of tlie arcliives of Pharao, overseer of a 

"house in tlie castle of in Thebes, Piyai, to receive tlie liomage 

"of the land of Kiisliii."' 

Piyai himself was represented under tlie inscription, face to the lelt. 

' Sayee, Gleammjfs from the Land of Eyyfl, in liccutU, t. XVII, p. 162 ; <;/'. Breasted, Auticnt 
Records, vol. Ill, p. 277, wlio conjectured tliiit there was at the fourth line the oflicial uame of 
a castle isitnated in Thebes; tlie naini' of tlie iViundcr of this castle was omitted, either by the 
ancient or liv the nindeni scribe. 

The scroiid iiisci-iptioii was placed iiiidci- the pfotcctioii of Sokliit, whose 
figure is now halt' ohlitenitcd. It ran tlnis, in seven xcrtiral lines: — 


" Year 3 of Kiuii- AkhciTes-Siphtah. Made [this inscriptiouj the tirst 
"charioteer of His Majesty, the kings messenger to every foreign land, 
" [when he came] to establisli the cliiefs ujjon tlieir seats, [and to take] 
"measnres ])leasing to liis hjrd, Haraui, son of Kama, true of voice, of 
"the great stable of 8etui-Meneplitah of the Residence ; he made it in 
" the vear ^ . . . .'" 

The third inscription consists of h\c \('rtical lines, which are engraved 

between two figures ot gods, Thoth <*-*|j^ \/ \\\ , and Ilorus, with tlu' 
solar disk upon his head : — 

"Year o. King Aklierres-8i})htah ; to the double of the iJoyal Scribe his 
"favourite, the feather-fan-bearer on the king's right hand, overseer of 

"the white house of Piyai, made l)y his son who causes 

"his name to live on. the scribe 

A fomth inscription of the same year is to be seen on a rock in the island 
of Seliel. tSetui, the Viceroy of Kush, is represented then' adoring the two 
names of King Akherres-Siphtah. which, crowned with the two feathers ^M > 

1 Sayce, Gkdidiujs fnnii the Land of Eijypt, in Ea-ueil, t. XVII, ]i. IGl'; cf. Breasted.. 
Antient llecorch, vol. Ill, ]). 277, wliore Sayue's copy has Ijeeii emended. 


are .staiitliug ou the sign for gold f^isq. TIr' text consists of six vertical 
lines : — 

:i 1 


" Year 3, first month of .Shonni, the 2Uth. (Jlorv to tliy double, U strong 
"king, that he mav give praises to the donl)le of the f'eather-fan-bearer 
"on the king's right hand the Viceroy of Kushu. overseer of the 
"foreign countries of the South, Setui." ^ 


III. GRAFFrru (IF THE (JTU Year. — It was found at (Juady Ilalfah and 
published by Sayce. 

To the left, the figure of Sokliit, or more exactly Kalihuit, lady of the 

I ^^§=^J. and receiving homage from a man who fronts her: 


"Year 6, King Akherres-Siphtah. xMade by the hrst charioteer of His 
"Majesty, the king's messenger to every foreign land, Ubakhu, son 
" of the Viceroy of Kushu Haraui." ■ 

It seems possible to classity correctly along with those some inscri]>tions 
which are not dated in regnal years. Thus, on both jandDS of the door of the 
small tenii)le at Aniada, two votive scenes were engraved, which were 
uncovered only three years ago when 1 wt-nt to Nubia. On the janil) to the 

1 Lepsius, Denhmiikr, III, 202 ; Mariette, Monuments Divers, PI. 71, No. 44 ; J. de Morgan, 
de la front lire dc Nuhie, p. 86, no. 29 ; Bnigsch, Thesaurm Inscriptionum.,t. V, p. 1215 t. 

- Sayce, Gknnings from the Land of Egypt, in Eecueil, t. XVII, p. 161 ; rf Breasted, 
Antient Mecords, vol. Ill, p. 279, wliere tlie last part is translated "His son, the kings son of 
" Kush, Hori, made [it]," in accordance witli a reading ^ of Steindorff. 

right ol' the tl(>(»r, tlir li.nurr of ;i (|iifi'ii is slaiidiii.^, divsscd in llic si)lciiili(l 
costuiiic of tlif XlXtli Dynasty, ami sliakin,!;- two si.stnuns, one in each hand. 
Her k-gond is to he seen in iVoul of licr : -^^^^l^'gl^J 
r^^-^-^'^^T an inscription hcliind licr says that the whole has hccn 

made hy order of -* S:fell?^SS°rkflfliD!S '■ ^'^ leather- 
" fan-beaivi- on the king"s right lianih coniniandcr of tlic king"s hownien, 
"Piyai."' On tlie janil) to the left, a liigli olhcrr is kneeling, with tlie 
feather-fan tied on to his hack, hotli hands raised in adoration to the two 
rings of Knig Akherres-Siplitali, which are raised on the sign ^, for the 
reunion of the two kingdoms of Egyi)t. lie is named : *^ ^[^ £^ ^ | [^ 1^ 
^^ ^ ^^*<.=^^(|(]^[]| '• Signet-l)earer of the King of Lower Egypt, 
"uni(|ne friend, chief overseer of the treasury of the whole land. Bayi." 

This was n,ade' hy the ^ XfeHTtSS^ ^ ^fll € O ! - ^-f'- 
'•fan-l)earer on the king's right hand, connnander of tlie king's bowmen, 
"Pivai," The Piyai recorded at Amada is the same man who left the two 
uratttti at Onadv-IIalfah : he. therefore, must have made them while going to 
or coming from the Second Cataract, in the .'h-d yeai' of Siphtah. 

tSetui's term of administration in Kushu lasted at least three years, since he 
is mentioned as being viceroy in the first and in the third year. Accordingly 
we are not able to say with certitude to \\hich yeai- the grathto refers whicli 
he left at Assnan : ^ it migiit have been written in the one as well as in the 
other occasion of Setui's passing that way. which he nuist have done to go to 
Ethio})ia. However, when we come to consider the scenes both at Assnan 
and at Silsileh," the likeness is so great between them, that there is very 
little doubt tliat they were made at about the same time : in both cases Bayi 
is represented liehind his king, and Setui otters to him as well as to Sii)htah. 
I feel inclined to think that the two gratiiti were engraved in the course of 
the same journey, and as the graffito at Silsileh is dated in tli<' thii-d year, 
the graffito at Assucln belongs probably to the third year too. 

Tt is difficult to sav in which year we nnist place a graffito, whicli a royal 

messenger to Kushu and Syria, *-^|^|].^J ^+ a "^^li mc^S^' 

the name of which has l)een destroyed, left at Ouady Ilalfah.'' If, however. 

1 See above, pji. win, xix. 

- See above, pp. xxin, xxiv. 

3 Sayce, Glii(iilii;i>i from the Land of Fi/y/if. in Itecveil, t. XVII, p. IGl. 

\\\' Ji;i(l ;i riiiiit to draw coiirliisioas tVoiii such uiiimtc details as the name of 
a god, tlie fact that this unknown officer makes hi.s otferiiiL;- to the same un- 

wlio appears in tlie inscri])tion of lM)ak]ni of tlie sixth year, miulit lead lis 
to conjectuiv tliat he was tlu-re some time dnrinjj,- that same year. On tlie 

other hand, another ii,-ratfito de(licatetl to I ^^J ^^-^Jf"©"' 1 1 1 "Horns, lord (_)f 
Buhani, ,ureat pnl.'" hy the kini^- himself.^ was ])r()bal)ly en.iiraved in tlie 
first year, wln'ii the kini.;- himself came to (»iiady llalfah " : it is not likely 
that Sii)litali made the journey to Nubia twice durinij.- his short reign. 

A small collection of dated ostraca was found liy Petrie. amongst the 
foundation dei)osits in the ruins of the funei'ary teiui)les which Siplitah built 
for himself in the necroi)olis of Thebes." They were written in the third and 
fourth years of his reign, and they are veceijits for jars of wine delivered by 
and to some officers of the uecrojiolis : — 

u^V!.""r Mssii ^iPk?g^ 

- - f\ ^f 

^- DAs l^^nnr,^^ 


" Year o. Wine for three days to the garden of tlie lioiise of Setui- 
" ]\lene])litah [I], in the House of Anion which is in tin' corner-lield of 
" Tiimii. bv the head-iiardeiier Anana." * 

This is a good specimen of that kind of document : the others gave the 
same text with variations in the jtrovenance of the wine and the names of 
the ofhcers. Their only ])oint of interest is in the fact that they give us a 
possibility of determining aj)])roximately the date of the construction : the 
part of it in which the foundation-deposits of Si])litah were found was begmi 
in the fourtli year of the reign, at the earliest. As blocks bearing the nanu' 

and title ,^\ ^^W^ul "^ J^''.^' ^^"'i''' IbuiKJ with them.' we must come to 
the conclusion that Bayi was still in power at that time. The documents of 
the same type disco\cre(l in Tauosrit's foundation depo>its aic fragmentary and 

'' Sayce, (i/ciiningsfivni tin: Land nf Ejiiijil, in Juriull dr Tniriivx, t. XVII, li[i. 101, U)2. 

- See al)ove, pj). xx -xxii. 

* Flinders Petrie, »S'ia; Tcmpkh at TkcUs, \>\k lo-lV. -"■!. 

"• im., PI. XIX, No. 5. 

'■ Ilnd.,V\. XVII, Xo. 12. 

tlic dates arc lost : one of tlicin iiiciiti()ii> tlir |"^"| ^[ ^^ jj^Q^ ^1 ' 
" King of l)otli Kgypts, Sitriya, Maritaniaini." tliat is to say, the Queen herself. 
Tliree ostraca, discovereil in IS'.)'.) in llie (onili of Ramses 111, have l)eeii 
attributed by Daressy to Tauosrit.' Iiut the attriliution of at least two of 
them is not certain. The only one on which her name is distinctly to he 
read hears the remains of the followiim inscri])tion : — 


" Year cS, foui-th month , Tauosrit sotjiuiniil , Ouasimariya sotpii 

" , Shomn. the day " 

Daressy took for granted that the date of the eighth year was in Tauosrit's 
reign, and Petrie, assmning Daressy's opinion to he exact, drew from it 
conclusions about the length of her reign.' Ihit there is no proof that the 
date was connected with Queen Tauosrit : her name may have Iteen written 
in the second line for a similar reason to the one which caused Ramses II's 
name to be inserted in the third. The Ostracon 2-").2'.)."5 is one of some series 
which were found in the royal tombs, beginning with the dates but without 
the names of the reigning sovereign, and ranging from year 1 to year 10. 
They lielong to the time of one of tlie Itamses of the XXth Dynasty, and I 
see no reason why we should break the series and take out of it the osti'acon 
on which the names lioth of Tauosrit and Ramses II are in.scribed : until a 
further ju'oof is found, we may safely assume that the date of the eighth year 
was not in the reign of Tauosrit Init in the reign of one of the kings of the 
XXth Dynastv, and set aside the concbisions which IVtrie drew from it about 
the length and conditions of lier power.' 

The other records we have of Sijihtah and Tauosrit add nothing to wliat 
we have l)een able to extract from the abo^•e-mentione^l documents. Their 
funerary temples, wliicli I'etrie nncovei'ed ten years ago, are com])letely 
destroyed, and Me have already tried to make use of .such scanty infoi'mat 


1 Petrie, -S'wj Temples at Tliehcs, PL XIX, No. 2. 

2 Daressy, Odmra, pp. 74, 81, Xos. 25293, 2.531.^, 25314 
^ See above, pp. xvi, xvii. 

* Flinders Petrie, A Hidurij of Eijupt, vol. ITT, pp. 128, 129. 

— xxvni — 

whicli they hixniglit Avitli tliciii. Tlic tonil) of Siplitali does not diift'V in the 
plan or in tlic decoration from the other tombs of the same jjeriod. It was 
resj)ected after tlie fall of tlie XlXth Dynasty, and the body of the king was 
taken out of it at the sanie time it was thoiiulit advisable to ]nit the royal 
nuimmies in liiding-jilaces out of tlie reacli of the r()l)bers : tlie body \va> 
transferred to the tomb of Amenothes II. and brought from it, in 1!)UU, to 
the Museum at Cairo, where it is now to be seen. The tomb ol' Tauosrit, 
where she luid been represented witli lier two husbands, Siphtah and 8etui II, 
was usurped by Nakhuitusit a few years, perhaps a few months only, after 
lier death. It seems that ])art of her funerary outht was collected by 
somel)ody — a robber? or a guardian? — and hidden away in the unfinished 
toml) in which ^Ir. Th. Davis found them this yeai'. Tlie jewellery she had 
with lu'r bore the names of her two husliaiuls. mon- ])articularly of Setui II : 
foi' instance, the large ear-rings whicli are such a conspicuous feature of the 
find are inscribed to tlie name of Setui and were j)robably a gift from him to 
his — living or dead — wife. The miuiimy of tlie (pieeii was not hidden in the 
tomb of Amenothes II with that of Siphtah, unless we choose to imaghie that 
we may identify it with one of the female bodies which were lying in the 
right-hand closet, and one of which some jteoplc have siip]iosed to Ite the 
mummy of (iueen Ilatshopsuitii. 


The ivw facts that we may believe we know about Sijihtah and Tauosrit 
are as follows : — 

(Siphtah belonged to a braiicji of the royal family, but we cannot sa}' to 
which. There is nothing to jirove that he was or was not a son of Kamses II, 
of Menephtah, or of Ameiimeses : tlic only certain thing alioiit liiiii is that 
he sncceedetl immediately Aiiienmeses and tliat he prec('(led immediately 
Setui II. 

Tauosrit seems to have possessed certain eminent rights which made her 
the hiwful heiress to the kingdom of Egyi)t, but of wliit-h king slie was a 
daughter, Menephtah, or Amenmeses. or another, we do not know. She 
married Sij)htah and reigiu'd together with him : their roiunioii reign, or, 
at least, Siphtalis reign, lasted ])robably six years. 

Si])htali went to Nubia in the lirst year ot his reign, and he seems to have 
met \\itJi no opposition in the south part of the Egy]>tian doiiiiiiion : the 

NubicUi cliicis made lioiiiaii'c to hiiu as to their kiiiu', and they suljiiiitted 
to liis viceroys witlioiit ojiposition. Jle liad ofiicers wlio were termed 
Messengers of the KiiHj /o k'/inrii, (tiid Xnli'ni, and their title was not an idh' 
l)oast in so far as they were concerned with Xnhia- : it may not liave heen 
serions in regard to Syria, Imt we have no proof that Siphtah had lost the 
Egyptian possessions I)eyoiid the isthnms, and the (piestion of how nnich he 
kept of his ancestor's coiKpiests is an opt'n one for the ]ti'esrnt. lie hiiilt 
two fnnerary teini)les near the Kamessenm, the one for himself, the second 
for Tauosrit ; his tomb is in the sonth-western part of the Eastern Valley 
of Kings. 

AVhen lie died, Tanosrit married his successor Setui II, and transfernNi h(>r 
rights to lier new husband. She died i)robal)ly before him and was burit'd 
by him in the IJiban el Molonk. 

Such are the facts about Siphtah and Tauosrit ; what more has l)een ov 
may l)e said is mere conjecture. 





It was the custoin of tlic kiii.ii's to cxcivatc tlirir toiiilis m the iiioiiiilaiiis 
or the foot-hills, in such site as promised the ^LiTcatcst coiR-caliiiciit ; the doors 
of the toiiilis were Jiiddcii with tons of rocks, great and small, therel)y liiviii-- 
the ai>]>earance of a natural de])osit. It is known that the Priests of Annnon 
were aware of the location of every tomh in the valley, and that this 
knowledtiv was handed down to the priests from Licneration to .ucneration ; 
that they made, at stated times, the examinations of the outward conditions 
of the sites of the tomhs, and rejjorted the results. For some years before 
November. IWo. I sou.cht to Hnd tombs in '-The Valley ol' the Kings" by 
exph)ring hither and thither wheiv I sup]iosed tlie greatest }>robal)ility existed. 
This manner of exjdoring yielded several tombs, but it was not .satfsfactory 
work, inasmuch as it neglected the intervening locations which might bear 
fruits. For this reason I established in Xovenil)er, lUU-j, the policy of 
exhausting every mountain and foot-hill in the valley. 

In execution of my " i)olicy,"" I conmience(l at tlie .south end ol the 
"valley," which is a '•cul-de-sac," and cleared every foot of the mountains 
and foot-hills of all the deposits of .stone and debris, and continued this 
manner of search by iollowing the rock down as long as it was vertical, and 
until it Hatted, by whicli it must be understood that the iidiabitants of 
Thebes knew that the si)ace In'tween the rocks and foot-liills on either side 
was a great water-course, con.sequently they rarely or never made a tomb 
in the horizontal course. 

The foregoing jjolicy will be continued from end to end of the valley and, 
probably, will result in linding every toml> in that location. When I stated 


to M. ^laspiTc) my proposeil luaum'r ot cxijlonitiou, lie rcplietl. '" it will 
require money, perseverance, and ])atienee, I am not sure about the latter." 
I accei)t M. ^laspero's recpiiiements, but 1 would add Hope to his catalogue. 

In Xf)veiuber, ]\)0'\ I foi'tuuately was able to secure the services of 
Edward li. Ayrton as my assistant ; his knowledge of cataloguing, keen 
observation, and willingness to live in the "valley," that lie might be 
present when the un'U were working, thereby securing thorough and honest 
work, rendered his services most valuable. 

On the ISth December, lUUo, we got our sight of a toml), which, on 
21st lust., proved to be Siphtah's (^lenei)tali II), a king of the XlXth Dynasty. 

The success of my e.xploration theory is demonstrated l)y the following 
incident: the site of the tomb was most unjjrdmising ; nevertheless it 
required its clearing : the (lioverument Ilais. who many years ago explored 
for the Cairo ]\Iuseuni, chanced to l)e ])resent during the tirst day of oui- work, 
and volunteered tlie iufoi'mation that " he had thoroughly explored, some 
years ago, the same hill, and he knew there was no toml) in it." A day or 
two thereafter we found the tomb ; then the Uais told us that he knew where 
there were several other toml)s on the hill. a)id that he would show them to 
us! In l)ehalf of the l!ais I ought to say that he, doubtless, had explored 
the site, l)ut, after his old manner of work, failed to discover the tomb ; his 
statement of the existence of various tombs was an Arabic fanta.'^y intended 
to please us. 

The finding of this tomb contributes to the knowledge of the hi.story of 
the last years of the XlXth Dynasty, inasnmch as it jH'oves that Siphtal 
a tomb of his own, and was not. as formerly su])posed. buried in the toi 
of his wife Tauosrit. If Sii)htah did no great deeds during his reign, he would 
seem to have possessed extremely good taste iu the decoration of his tomb, 
and causing to be made for'lj' a beautiful alabaster .sircoiihagus ; a 
fragment of which only remains, as will be seen by the illustrations here- 
with ])ublislied. 


My excuse lor the publication of the lindiug iu .la)iuary, 1908, of an 
unnamed tomb, in connection with my work iu ll)U-3 and I'.IUO, is that the 
contents of the tomb reveal inteivsting knowledge res]>ectiug the relations 
of Setni II, Queen Tauosrit, and Siphtah, and permits me, at an early date, to reproductions of the uniipie deposits of gold and silver ornaments. 

1 liad 


111 tlu' ])i-()C('SS ol' ('xIi;iii.stili,Li' tlic |iossil)iliti('S ol' tlic " loot-liill," wliicli is 
opposite our l;ist ('.\])l()rc(l site, ^\^^ coiiiiiicihmmI our (picst on .Iniuiary •3r(l, 
1908. Ck'iirini:- tJie "foot-liill" of all tlic stones and (h'hris, anil, iiiuliuii- 
notliin^i:', we rcaclicd tlic wide piitli which is ioiiudcd on tlic ori^uiual water 
course of the valley, and stalled to follow down the vertical rock. After 
a few days' work, with a large ninnlier of men and hovs, to our surprise 
we found that the rock continued tf> descend vertically, with no signs of 
"flatting." I frankly admit it seemed a waste of time and e.\])ense, but I 
deti'i'iiiined to follow the rock as long as it remained per])endicular, therefore 
we continued our descent for several days. I was conscious, however, that 
we had reached a ])oint I>elow the water course of the ancient valley, and 
that, if any tomli existed, its contents must liave been destroye<l. The 
result, liowevt']-, was that, after descending twenty-eight feet from the surface 
of our starting j»oiiit, we were rewarded by the di.scovery of a toml) cut in 
the still ])ersisting i)eri)eudicular rock. It ])roved to be without decoration.'^ 
or in.scrijjtions, and consisted of one room, twenty-five feet wide and ten 
feet high. It was nearly hlled with very hard nmd, which had evidently 
been washed in l»y the ancient waters. Doubtless the unknown man who 
excavated it i)aid no attention to the fact that it would lie flooded by the 
subseipient rain storms, until he realised that his mummy could not be 
preserved for resurrection, therefore he seems to have aliaiidoned the 

There was nothing in sight, or promise, of any olijects having been 
deposited in the tomb, but, as a matter of course, we undertook to clear it, 
using carving knives to break up the mud, as we feared that the use of 
heavy imi^lements would destroy any possible deposits. As none of our 
workmen were allowed in the toml), jMr. Ayrton did this most disagreeable 
work with his own hands — a task reipiiring skill, eiidiiiunce, and patience. 

On the second day of Mr. Ayrtoifs labour, I made my usual daily visit 
to the Valley of the Kings, and on my arrival Mv. Ayrton told me that, 
shortly before flnishing the morning's work, he had discovered a very .small 
morsel of gold buried in the mud. Wr delayed our entrance for an hour 
or two, but, had we for a moment supjiosed that the tomb contained the 
wonderful de])0sit which we now know, I am quite sure there would have 
been no delay. 

' I have fnuiiil t\v(j 111- three in.'stance.s of comiiiencenients of toiulis iu the water courses, 
whicli, after .suine had l)een made, had l.)eeu abandoned, evidently fearing the 


WJicii wt" entered the t(iiiil) we were iilile, witli tlie aid of two caudles, to 
see the hit of gold, hut it was so eiulnMlded iu the uiud we dare(l uot use 
the carving knives, fearing they would injure the ohject. We, therefore, 
procured water and Hooded the spot where the liai'd uiud held the gold, aud 
presently disclosed the two heautitid gold ear-rings, or wig-rings, illustrated 
in the catalogue. During the afteriuxui we Ho(»ded a s]»ace ahout four feet 
s(iuare. aud. liejdre dark, found nearly all the ohjects hereafter descril)ed. 

Among the ohjects was a pair of silver glo\i's. evidently intended for a 
woman with small hands. I dissohcd the nnid with which they were tilled 
l)y soaking the gloves iu water, aud when I pouR'd out the contents there 
came eight iuii(iue gold Huger rings, with cartouches of Setni II, (lueen 
Tauosrit, aud Kauieses II. 

The total result of our woi'k was : the linding of a collection of uni(|ue 
gold and silvei' jewellery, three thousand years old. ]iractically iu as good 
condition as it was the day it was made : the linal settlement of the period 
of Setui II aud his relation to Tauosrit. 


In the month of Jainiary, 1900, we resumed oui- ]iolicy of clearing. ^Ve 
began our work on a foot-hill near the tond) of '-Siplitah," and, on the 
•ilst inst., discovered two " Pit-tond)s." The first one had a ])erpendicular 
shaft, 12 feet deej), cut in the rock aud Idled witli stones and di'hris ; it 
opened into a room 8 feet scpiare and ■"> feet high. I went down the shaft 
and eidered the chand)er, wdiich ])roved to he t'.xtreniely hot aud too low 
for condbrt. 1 was startled hy seeing very near me a yellow dog of ordinary 
size standing on his feet, his short tail curled over his hack, aud his eyes 
open. Within a lew inches of his sat a monkey in (|uite perfect 
condition ; for an in.stant I thought they wei'e alive, hut I soon saw that they 
had been munnnified, and that they had been iniwrap])ed in ancient times 
by robbers. Evidently they had taken a fragment of the wooden monkey- 
bo.\, on which they seated the monkey to keep him upright, aud then they 
stood the dog on his feet so near the monkey, that his nose nearly touched 

The attitude of the animals .suggested that the monkey was saying, "It's 
all over with me,"' aud the dog, with liis bright eyes aud mannei'. seemed 
to reply, '"Have courage, it will end all I'ight."' I am (pute sure the robliers 


arranged the iiroiip lor their aiuiiseiiieiit. IIowcnim' this iiia\' he, it can 
fairh' be said to he a joke -lUiH) years old. 

Siihse(|iiently we eiitei'ed the second "" I'it-toHih," wliicli was voiy near 
tlie tirst, and practically ol' the same oi'der. It also contained ninnimilied 
monkeys, hii-ds, dncks, etc.. t'nil details of which will he found in Mr. Avrton'.s 

The tomh of Amenhotep 11 heinu,' so near the " I'it-tomhs," it is ipiite 
])Ossil)le that the mnnnnilied animals were oi'i^inally the King's pets. 

In the conrse of oar exploration of the foot-hills, which inclnded the 
discovery of the animals reieri'ed to al)0ve, we found that, many years ago, 
some government explorer had ado}»ted the method of sinking a narrow pit 
through the overlying di'-hi-is to the rock, and. finding notliing, moved on 
about 12 feet, and there ])itted as formerly : this maimer of exploring he 
continued until he liad fmished the liill. 

We discovered that his narrow ])its, in several instances, came within a 
few inches of the tombs we found, t]ierel)y showing the advantage of 
exhausting the possibilities of a location. 


This tomb was opened and robbed in ancient times. For many years it 
was filled with debris ; thinking its clearing might be instructive, I decided 
to have it done. Mr. Ayrton's rejiort will give full details. 




T. .A[. DAVIS AND E. W. AYirroN. 

We recommenced our work tliis year towards the end of Octolter, lOOo, at 
tlie same spot where it had l)eeu left off last season. 

Tlie ])romontorv of rock in which Tomb No. 12 is situated had Ijeen 
partially duii over on its southern face. AVe spent some three days in 
excavating the upper layers of ridiliish licre. Xo results, however, were 
forthcoming, and we removed our work to tlie extreme east of the valley, 
slightly to the south of tlie tomb of Thothmes IV, with the intention of, 
later, completing the first site. Here Ave dug up the sloi)e to tlie face of the 
cliffs, finding nothing excejjt tlie uulinished I'utrauce to a toml) whicji had 
barely been begun. 

The spot next chosen was in front of Uaa and Tliuaas tomb, where we ran 
long trenches, working down to the bed-i'ock, from east to west across the 
front of Tomb No. -3. We then turned to north and south along the rock face, 
l)Ut with no results. To the north the sloping rock suddenly dijis down at a 
perpendicular angle to form the main water-course, and, since it was ol)vioiis 
that no toml) could ever have been made there, we shifted our work to the 
opposite side of the tourist path, and began to dig in front of the tomb of 
Kameses IV. The ground in front of this tomb had at hrst the appearance 
of being untouched desert surface, covered with Mack flints, Imt, on digging 
one or two trial jnts, Ave found that in reality the rock came to an abniiit 
end at a distance of about twenty feet from the mouth of the toml), and Avent 
down j)erpendicularly to a depth of some twelve feet. This liad I)een Idled 
up level to the upi)er surface with the masons' rubbish from a tomb. The 
broken vessels and dishes of the workmen had also l>een thrown in, and 
the Avhole covered witli flints from the real desert surface to give it a natural 

THE EXCAVATION'S I)I'i;iN(; THE WINTERS (IE lii():,-I!K)i;. 7 

;ili|K';ii';ilicc, aiitl to hide one oi' the most iliil»oi1;nit witnesses to tlie presence 
of 11 toiiil). 

We reilio\-e(l the L;re;iter li;irt ol' this (h'liris to see it' it concealed an oMci- 
tonil), hut were unsnccesslnh A series ol' ostraka, however, rewanh'il our 
ell'orts to some extent. These ;ire all drawn or ]iainted on pieces ol' w hite 
limestone. Avhich oll'er a ,Liood surface for such woi'k. Of these the hesl is 
])rol)al)ly that of a kind's head, wearin,i;- the rin^vd war helmet. The face is 
coloured a li^Liht pink, the helmet hein.ii' lilack. A sketch ]ilan of the door 
of a toml) (prol)a])ly Xo. 1') with, on the vevei'se, a desiu'n showing' a lion 
lioldiiiii' a captive's head in its mouth, is well done. Some lines of a foi-nnda 
in hieratic with the name of Anieidiotep I, an ostrakon mentioning Xeli-hapet 
Ua Mentuhote]), the head of a jjihyan. and a horse and chariot, were also 
found here, the two latter heing drawn in reil ink. 

Almost all the masons" potterv had lieeii hrokeii up into small fragments 
l)efore it was liuri(.'d, only a few sliallow dishes remaining entire. These 
were encrusted with plaster, and, in some cases, with colours which had 
heen used in the decoration of the tondt. Most of the ]iots had marks 
scratche(l on them, which are interesting, since their date is ipiite ceitain. 
As several fragments hear the name of Itanieses II, and no other name 
a,]) on them, it is prohalile that this ruhhish is all from his tondi. 

We ne.xt workeil up towards the mouth of the tond) of Ranieses IV on the 
north, and dug through tli<' (h'hvis of rough ('o]itic and IJoman huts, which 
liad lieen occnpit'd hv the plunderevs of this tond). There we tound some 
dozens of fragments and ahout twenty s]ieciniens of alabaster usliahtis of 
Kanicscs IV, very rouglily cut, some l)eing hlocked out without any attempt 
at detail : the features, a line of hieroglyphs, and the cartonches of the king 
heing carelesslv ])ainte(l in. Fragments of Coptic ostraka and one unopene(l 
])apvrus letter were also unearthed. The ro]itic house was roughly huilt of 
fragments of limestone : the walls cannot have l)een of any great lieight, and 
the rooms were very small. The Roman house heiieath was built of sun-dried 
bricks, with a floor of baked bricks and stone. In front of this was a small 
oven and two small circular granaries ; at one end of the house three 
unipliorae used for storing honey were found ; the ends had been knocked 
of!', and they were filled with the comb. 

Kemo\ing these Inits, we dug .some tliree feet through the limestone 
chippings to the rock level. 

Our work was next shifted to the northern face of the i)romontory of rock 
which runs out from the pei'pendicular clitls slightly south of the toml) of 


Aiiiciili()tc|t II. IIciX' tlic I'ock .uocs down almost |icriK'iiiliciilarIy to a (I('])th 
of soinc tliirtcoii Uvt Ix'low tlic jtrcsciit .surface. We diiu- aloiii:' the wliolc 
length of tliis, our oiil\' finds hciutj,- one or two ostraka of the XXtli Dynasty. 

Tlic results here wci'c disapjioiutiuu. AVe Avci'e. however, more fortunate 
towards the eastern jioiut of the i)romontorv, wliere at a de])th of twelve feet 
from the .surface we found a beautiful blue-glazed cu]), bearing the cartouche 
of Tutankhamen of the XVIIIth Dynasty. On the liottoni of the cuj) were 
foiu' nol)s of pottery, ])robably to .stand tlic cu]) I'ree from the Hat bottom. 
The cup, when found. wa.s jirotected by a large overhanging stone. Evidently 
the water had rushed in enough (h'bris to hold it in place, thereby preserving 
it. AVhy. or I'rom \vliat it made such a ])erilous joiii'iiey, is, of course, 

At a higher level, somewhat to the east of this, and only three feet from 
the surface, we found a group of fourteen ushabti.s of Uameses IV, exactly 
similar to found (Mitside his tomb ; these were jn'obably hidden here by 
modern thieves or phniderers. 

Our next stej) resulted in the discovery of the tomb of .Siphtah, which is 
described in the following cha})ter. 







The soutlnM-ii cxtrcinity of the Royal Vallov ta]H'rs oti' into a narrow water 
channel, .lust to the north of tliis, and to the west, the cliffs form a hirii-c 
bay i)artially scjiarattMl from tlio main valley hy a loii,u- toniiuc of rock, which 
starts from the ]>cr]i<'n(licular cliffs on the south, in this hay are situated 
a family group of tombs of the XlXth Dynasty — Setui 11, Tauosrit, Bai, and 
the newly-discovered tomb of Si]»litali. The three former are hollowed out oi 
the actual fu;e ol' the cliff; that of Sii)htah runs into the tongue of rock 
from north to south. 

The stoneniasous" rulibish i'rom the tombs of Setui II and Tauosrit, with 
prol)ablv a certain amount of d(''bris irom that of Siphtah, had been thrown 
on to and against this ])romontory. This rubbish, after many centuries, had 
silted down and thus hidden the entrance to the tomb with a level layer 
varying in deiith fiom si.x to twelve feet ; there were, therefore, no indications 
of anv sort to lead us to sup])ose that a tomb had ever been made in this 

As our plan, lio\ve\er, was to leave no spot, even the most unpromising, 
without a trial, we ran trenches at every lew feet towards the rock, and 
finding that this sloped up at a, gradual angle, we lengthened our trenches, 
and were soon rewarded l)y striking tlie top (ff a Hight of ste])s leading into 
a tomb. 

At ouce every a\ailable workman was set to work, and, after a day's hard 
labour we were al)le to catcli a glim])se of the door lintel, and to read the 
cartouches of Siphtah, a king who has always been thought to sliare with 
Tauosrit the tomb which lies 0])posite (Xo. 14-). 

The plan of the tondj (Page lU : Tomb of Sii»htah) is in the general style 
of the late XlXth and early XXth dynasties. Two shallow fiights of steps, with 
a sloping plane between, lead down to the entrance, the flanking rock being 
covered bv white stucco, but unornamented. These stejjs are made of 
cari'fidlv cut l>locks. iuserteil after the slojie liad been c\it, and are not part 


of tilt' solid rock. Tlic sIojk' leads down to the ciitraiicc jiropcr of tlic toiiili — 
a largx' doorway coated with stucco ami oiiianu'iitcd in the usual way with 
the kiii,ii's titles down each jauih. and a niytliolo.iiical scene on the lint<'l. 

As will he seen from the photogTaj)!! (I'late : fhitrance to the Tomh of 
King Sijihtah) the lintel was originally su])])orteil hy a heam of wood : the 
lioles in the Hoor and roof — sockets for a large wooden hivahc door — are 
also there. This is the case with each of the further doors. 

After this first doorwav, we pass through three long corridors, the lirst and 
last sloping at an angle, and the central one lieiiig horizontal. Of the 
lirst two are coated with stucco and are covered with scenes and hieroglypli.s 
in colour, the roofs heing also decorated ; hut heyond this no trace of stucco 
remains. The third coi'ridor has at its fnrthei- end two small recesses, one in 
each wall. 

Passing through a sipiare chamher. with a horizontal Hoor, one enters a 
large hall, the roof of which was originally sui)])orted hy four columns. Only 
one of these remains at present, and this we were obliged to ])roi) u}) as a 
slight sliock would have heeii quite sutticient to make it fall. The floor at 
the sides and the roof are horizontal, hut in the centre a cutting leads down 
into a corridor, the roof oi' which is helow the horizontal iloor-level of the 
hall. Ijevond this are two corridors leading into a square room. 

We penetrated helow it far enough to ascertain that there was another 
chamber in which the invading water had de])Osited a, solid mass of di'hris 
many feet high ; in most jilaces the roof had fallen in, e.\])osing a cavity (piite 
two metres high, thereby rendering the chambev most unsafe to work in. 

We knew that the mummy of the king had been found by Loret .--onie 
years ago in the tomb of Anieiiliote}) II. In addition to this, it was evident 
that the tomb had been completely plundeivd in ancient times, and if any 
objects had been lelt in the room they must have been crushe(l beyond 
recognition by the weight of the mass of rock which had tilled the chamber. 

The discovery of a fragment of an alabaster sarco])hagus, which we found 
the tirst (lav we entered the corridor, convinced us that destruction would 
ju'rvade the tomb. We therefore decided to abandon the excavations. 

The llight of steps at the entrance, as we have already mentioned, was 
tilled with rubbish, but this rubbish belonged to two ditfereiit jieriods. The 
lower iuouikI which reached almost to the door lintel was the earlier, and 
had originally lilled the entrance more or less comiiletcly, but an entrance 
had been dug down through this, by later jilunderers or jjiiests, which in turn 
had silteil up. In this lower rubl)ish were })ots and pans in a more oi- less 


In'okcii cdiKlilioii, (if till' typi' which \v;is iiscil hy workiiicn on ;i tonih. 
These •coiiM not have heloiiii'ed to Siphtah, since, as we shall see, this 
riihhisli was very iiiiich later than the hiirial ol'lhc kiiii;'. and nnist have lieeii 
thrown in from some oilier tomh. The potteiy apjicai's to heloni;' to the 
XLXth or XXth Dynasties. One of the fragments hears the name of Sctui- 
Merenittah : a |iot is exactly similar to one fonnd liy j'etrie in Tanosvit's 
fnnerary teniph'. and two or three of the larger ones are similar to those 
fonnd in the masons' rnhhish of Ramses II. 

An inteicsting jioint, worthy of consideration, is that the cartonches 
throngiioiit Siphtah's tomh \\n\r heeii cnt ont and again restored, and, since 
this rnhhish completely covered several of the restored cartonches hoth at the 
entrance and in the corridor, this rnhhish nuist have heen deposited hei'e 
after tlie restoration had taken ])lace. 

That this I'lihhish completely tillecl the entrance is clear, since we fonnd a 
rongh chip-wall Imilt on top of the mound to hold back the rid)hish dng ont 
hy the next peo]»le to enter the place. A deejter passage had then been 
scooped in the rnhbish in the tirst eori'idor, the debris being thrown against 
the west wall, and on to]> of this rubbish were lying fragments of an alabaster 
sarcophagus and also a ushabti of Si})htah. In the second corridor were found 
pieces of ushabtis inuler the stucco which had di'ojtjted from the walls. 

In the rubbish we found fragments of l)lue glazed usha1)tis, one of which 
bears the cartouche of ^Men-niat-lla, but by the glaze it is })rol)al)lv of later 
date than Setui I, and also pieces of well-cut ushabtis in alabaster. In this 
up})er rubbish, and with the pottery below, we fonnd lunnerous fragments of 
ostraka, one or two of whicli l)eai' thi' name of Setui 11, whilst three bear 
dates, and the rest refer to lists of workmen, receijits, or bear single names. 

On the floor of the second corridor lielow the water-laid rul)bish was found 
a piece of wood with the inscription The Royal Mother Thiv, the hierogly})lis 
being incised and inlaid with l)lne paint. Besides the ushabtis of Siphtah, 
we found the upper part of an usha!>ti of a woman in alabaster, and of better 
workmanship than those of Siphtah. 


The entrance slope with its flight of steps is only coated with a layer of 
white stucco, which has been left plain. 

On the lintel of the entrance is deiiicted the worshij) of the 8nn, in his 
form of Khnuni-khe])er-Ra, by Isis and Nei)hthys ; behind Isis is an invocation 


to Ra-Horakliti for tlic lioyal Osii-iaii. ;iii(l licliintl Xcjilitlivs is a siiuilav 
])vayer to Osiris for tlir kiiiu'. Tlic whole of this scene rests on a 
conventional hed of sand. On the outer side of each janih are the lull 
titles of the kinu', with his two Ilorus names, Ka-nekht-nieri-llapi and 

Inune(li;itely inside tlie entrance, on both sides of the door, is a scone of 
till' goddess ^laat with winas outstretched, above whom are three lines of 
liieroglvi)]is and the cartouches of the king : she is seated on a large neb 
liasket, which is su])])orted on the tlowers of a pajtvrns plant on one side 
of the door, and a lotus on the other. These scenes occupy the whole 
height of the wall, and are on a slightly higher level than the true 
wall of the coi'ridor. Ueyond this, on the left, is a veiy liiiely worked 
scene of the king receiving Life, Power, and Strength from Ra Ihirmachis 
(Plate: " Entrance to the Tomb of King Si])htah "'). Between them are the 
cartonches of the king and the titles of tlie god. 

These cartonches have been erased and re})laced with great care, as have 
also the smaller cartonches on the belt oi the king. The head of the king is 
especially good, Iteing (piite ]teifect, and is the oidy real ]>orti'ait we })ossess 
of this monarch. 

After this scene, the first two corridors of the tomb are decorate(l with 
texts which are collectively called by the name of "The Litany of the Sun." 
The Litany begins with three vertical lines of hieroglyphs, giving the title of 
the first cha])ter or book. Then follow's a scene (Plate: "Tlie Flight of the 
Evil Demons before the Sun "'), which shows the Sun as Khnnm-Klieper-Ra 
sinking Ix'tweeii the two horizons, whilst the evil demons of Amentet fly 
before him towards the head of a gazelle with a fiame between its horns, 
emblematical of the Underworld. 

On the same wall we find seventy-five vertical lines of hieroglyphs, each 
of which fi)rins a separate adoration of .some form of the god Ua. The 
remainder of the w;dl, and the left-hand jamb of the second doorway, are 
covered with eighty-one Acrtical lines of hieroglyphs, fi)rming a short hymn, 
which states that the deceased knows all that is contained in the seventy-five 
preceding adorations. 

The first i)art of both walls of the second corridor is divided into two 
registers. In the upper aiv shown seventy-five i)ersonages, each with his 
name, which corresjjond to tlu' adorations in the first corridor. 

The lower register of the two walls of the second corridor is ])artly filled 
with a short text in vertical lines, forming Chajiter 2 of the Litany. This is 



adilivsscd to tlic ,ii'(Hls wIki iiilinliit the vai'ioiis splicrcs of the rndcnvorld, 
;iiid is sonicwlint siiuilai- to Chapter 127 (if the IJonk of the Dead. 

We now return to (lie (li'st coiTidor. the riiiht-haiid wall of which begins 
with Chajiter III, and wliich is composed of lifteen vertical lines, and is merely 
a short invocation. 

Xext come vertical lines forminii' the foni-th chapter of our l.itany, which 
ends on the ceiling of the si^^ond corridor. 

Filling the sonthorn oiul of the second corridor, on both walls, is the 
vignette of Chapter lol of the book of the Dead; Annhis (Plate: Annbis) 
bends over the nnnnmy of the deceased on his conch, at the head and foot of 
wliich kneel Isis (Plate : Isis) and Xephthys, leaning fonvavd and resting 
rheir hands on the eml)lem of eternity. In the four corners of the scene 
tand the genii of Amentet (Ilapi, Qebhsennnf, Amset, and Duamutef), whilst 
Annbis Amiut on his shrine rests aliove and below the iiinend conch. In 
tlie third liall the water has almost comi)letely destroyed the stucco, and it 
is only from a. few loose scrajjs near the door that we are able to know that 
it was once decorated with scenes from the book of Amduat, of which the 
fourth chapter Ix'gan on the right-hand wall. 

The ceiling of the first corridor (Plate : Ceiling in Main Corridor) is of the 
same design as those in tlie tond)s of Setni I and Setui II. Vultures with 
natural heads, or the head of a snake, with outsi)rea(l wings and grasjiing a 
fan in their claws, stretch across the breadth of the ceiling, and alternate 
with the royal cartouches, wliilst down each side runs a long line of hiero- 
glyphs painted in coloiu's on a yellow background. This ceiling is damage(l 
near the doorway, but enough remains within to give a very good idea of 
the design and colouring. The ceiling of the second hall is ipute perfect, 
and shows a background of black with yellow stars, and. in the centi'e, a 
long oblong of yellow on which are thirty-four lines of grey hieroglyphs from 
the final chapter of the Litany of the Sun, and a vignette showing the soul 
of tlie 8nn-god, represented l)y a. ram-headed l:)ird on a disc between two 
l)lood-red hawks, with respectively the emblems of Isis and Xei)hthys on 
their heads, standing on two shrines or jiylons. The ceiling of the third 
corridor was jirobably similar to that of the second, but it has been compU'tely 

No traces of further decoration remain in the toinl), though one or two 
hieroglyphs in the further rooms show that it was originally hnished. 



The approacli to tlic toiiili of AiiR'uliotcp II (Xo. od) is tlirougli a small wadi 
formed by two rock in-omontories, which jut out to the east from tlie 
])erpeii(licidar clitfs on the west of the Uoval Valley, and near to its sontlu'rn 
end. The promontory to the north of this wadi is occupied by Tombs 
Nos. 12 and [). The southern promontory had not yet been touched. This 
presented to the eye a level surface of loose rubbish, nnbroken by depressions. 
Accordinii' to our system of exhaustion we sank ])its at the eastern end to 
iiud the rock level, and then commenced a complete clearance of the sIojjc 
workin,ii' towards the Avest. We were rewarded by the discovery of five 
tombs, which, although jjlundered and of no great size, yielded interesting 

The first of these sepulchres (Xo. 49) was situated on the northern side of 
the promontory, and ran into the rock towards the south. The entrance was 
hlled with loose limestone chips, and amongst these we found a large 
fragment of limestone showing an official worship])ing, and also, on anotlu'r 
chip of limestone, a design in red and black of a man olfering to 
(|ueen Aahmes-Xefertari. 

In date it is probably of the XVIIIth Dynasty. A flight of steps leads 
down to the doorway which ojtens into a long .sloi)ing corridor, at the other 
end of which is another doorway which shows signs of having been sealed 
up with .stones and cement. This opens into a large rectanguhir room in 
the floor of which a staircase was begun, leading down, l)ut never finished. 
The had been filled with rubbish to the level of the lioor of the 
room, and the burial jiroliably took place here. The only objects in the 
I'ooin were a few scra|)s of mummy-cloth and fragments of the large 
whitened jars which occur in burials of the XVllItli Dynasty. Plunderers 
had dug a siuall pit in the second staii'way to search for a further door, 
and in this rubbish we found a verv fine ostrakon of " Ilav, the chief 


of tlic woi-kiiicii ill llic riacc of Ti'iilli '' (a iiaiiii' oi' tliis portion ol' tlic Tlichau 
necropolis). On the oKvcrsc lie makes oiferinus at an altai' to a Imge snake, 
j\fer-segr (" I.ovei' of Silence "'), the (iixidess of the Tonihs. On the reverse is 
a well-written hid'atic inscription ,uivin_ii' a list of workmen. Sevei'al very 
rouiiii limestone slahs with s(piares scratched on tJK'ni for a ,^anie were also 
found in the clianil)ei-. Over the first entrance to the tomli is a of 
workmen written in red hieratic characters. 

To the west of this toinl), and on a sliditly higher level of the same tongue 
of rock, we discovered a groii]) of three pit-tombs, forming a rough triangle. 
All were covered witli rubbish to a dei)tli of six feet, and tlie sliafts were also 
filled with dc'Iiris. The ]>lan was in each case the saim — a short s(piare 
■shaft, oi' no great depth, from the sontliern side of which a chamber was (ait 
into the r(»ck ; this varied in size in the three tombs, but was in no case 
very large. 

In the first tonili o]iened (Xo. ."iU), the chainl)er was about ]'•) feet 
long bv li-S feet broad. The shaft, ]2 feet deep by about 4 leet S((uare, 
was full of rubbish, .some of which had penetrated into the room. It 
had l)een almost completely plundered, only a few fragments of Avood 
remaining from the cotiin. Pro])iied up against the eastern wall was a large 
dog, (piite ]ierfect although stripped of its wra})pings, and a monkey still 
jiartially wrai)i)ed. This tyjie of dog is described by Daressy and (iaillaid in 
the Cairo Catalogue {luiiinr di- I'Aiic. E(iij])t(' (1), j;i),oUl). Unfortiuiately 
we could hud no trace of the name of the owner of the tonil). 

The second t(»mb (Xo. -H) of the group, situated slightly to the north of 
this, consisted of a short shaft with a very small chamlier opening to the 
.south. Tliis had been ])lundered, and some of the rubbish from the .shaft 
had found its way into the chamlier ; the entrance had been closed iij) again 
with bits of stone, and jiart of the disused lid of a minnmy cothn. 

The chamlier was completely hlled with animals, all of which had been 
originally mummihed and doni' u]i in (doth wrajiijings. (hi the right on 
entering were two monkeys, placed with their backs to the wall in a 
S(piatting jiosition, one completely wra])ped uji, tlie other with ajiparently 
burnt wraiijiings ])avtly torn from the face and head. Against the south wall 
was a, large monkey, with the wraiipings torn from its head, a tarred 
box-colhn for some animal, and a, heaj) of loose bandages in which was the 
unwrapped 1)ody of an ibis. Against the east Avail in the corner Avas a 
perfect sjiecimen of a large cynocei)halous ajie, Avearing a necklace of small 
lilue disc beads. 


18 lMiI\-.\'l'K TOMBS. 

Tliree nuiimuii'u'd ducks were also luiiiid in the c1i;iih1k'1-, ;is well as soiiif 
liuiidles of intestines made up in the ibrni of little human fii;iuvs ; one of 
these had near it a mask of beautifully coloured stucco, representing a 
human head, which had prohalilv originally titted it. This was certainly 
of the XVIIIth Dynasty. 

In most cases the wra})pings had been torn oil' and in other cases the 
cloth had 1>een jiulled away from the neck to renioxc any jewellery, etc., 
which had been worn by the animal. 

The third tomb (No. 52) consisted of a shait U feet (i inclu's deej), and a 
chamber 8x5 feet and 4 feet 8 inches liigh, was absolutely empty excei)t for 
two boxes, one of which was almost double the size of the other. These were 
covered with l)itumen and were without decoration or ornament either inside 
or out. The larger contaiiu'd numerous wraiijjings and the unwrapped 
])odv of a small monkey; the smaller box was divideil into four partitions, 
reseml)ling in this respect a box for canopic jars. 

To the west of the two last-mentioned tomlis, and on the same slope, was 
another tomb (Xo. 48) of the same type. The shaft was about 20 feet deej) by 
(J feet broad, with a comparatively large chamber, Ki-IT feet by 10-11 feet 
by (i feet high, to the south-west. The tomb had been anciently plundered, but 
a rough wall liad been re-constructed to the cliand)er door. The floor 
was covered with some six inches of rubbish, and on this lay the (lel)ris from 
the burial. The munnuy, that of a man, tall and well-built, had been 
unwrajjped and thrown on one side. Fragments of the cotlin, which was of 
wood coated with ])itch and then i)ainted with yellow hieroglyphs, lay 
.scattered about the floor. We were so fortunate, on sifting the rubbi.sli 
on the ground, as to discover some wooden ushabtis with the titles of 
Anionmapt, Vizier and (iovernor of the Town, painted in yellow on a surt:u-e 
of jtitch. Three perfect and fragments of another mud tablet, which had 
originally been wrapi>ed in tarreil clotli, also bore the name and titles of the 
vizier. A clay seal from a, roll of papyrus (?) bearing the inscription "Amen 
hears good praises," was also found. Fragments of a rough wooden chair 
and pieces of white pottery jars lay scattered about. On the whoU', the 
furniture must have been very i)oor when compared with the rank of the 
man, and tlie walls of the tomb were ([uite l)are. without even a layer of 
stucco to fill the irregularities of the rock. 

On the other side of the path, and .slightly to the north of Tomb 2!), we 
discovered another l)rn-ial-i)lace (Xo. 5:')). This consisted of a square shallow 
shaft, leading down to a large room. The tond. had lu'en plundered, and 


iiotliiiii;- \v;is found in the elmiiibrr exa-j)! ;ui ostnikoii ol" one " lloni, clik't 
scribe in tlu' Place of Truth." In the rul)l)ish of the sliaft were found several 

The remains of rouii;h workmen's Inits were near Iiy, and had heen Ituilt 
over tlie mouth of the tomi), wliieh liad, liowever, been since plundered; 
and built into the walls of one of tliese we discovered several ostraka and 
trial pieces, most of which had suffered eonsidera1)ly from exposure to tlu? 



(No. 1!).) 


The toiuli of I'niice Ranieses Mciitulierkliepslief is situated ininiediately 
under the cliffs uliicli shut in the eastern side of tlie Royal Valley at 
Thebes, and occui)ies, at a lower level, the si)ace l)et\veen the seimlchres of 
Thothnies IV and Hatshejjsut. 

It runs into a tonaue of land which juts out to a short distance and at a 
steej) ande from the perpendicular cliffs. A dry water-channel runs down 
from the uj»j)er i)lateau, drops some distance ])erpendicidarly, and then goes 
along the southern side of this j)roniontory, turning round the point and 
continuing north-west directly in front of the entrance of the tond). 

The tomh has l)een known for some time to Eurojjean savants, and various 
descriptions have been jjublished. The earhest description which we have is 
that of Chanii)ollion {Notices, }>. 464), wlio describes it as the tomb of 
Prince Rameses. From his notes, we see tliat the doorAvay was jn-actically 
clear of rul)1)ish, since he gives a sketch of the rough hierogl3'i)hs on the 
outer side of the southern jamb ; the first scenes on either sicle of the 
corridor were, howe\ei', more or less blocked ; the second were })artly clear, 
and the rest of the tond) was ])rol)al)ly in much the same state as when 
examined by Lefebiv. After giving details of the various gods and the 
offerings before them. Champollion says that the "corridor led to a S(|uare 
"hall in which the mummy of the i)rince had once lain, some fragments 
"of which we found here." Numerous fraiiinents of black stone, which 
jn'obably Ixdonged to the sarcoi)hagus, were also found here. 

The tond) was next visited l)y Le])sius {L.D., III, 21G, :il7 .\-ii) and two 
complete scenes are pul)lished l)y him. He also gives two exam])les ol' the 
titles borne liy the prince, and full-sized coloured portrait. 

Later again the tond) was visited by Lefebre {3fis.sioti (ircli. fmncuise, 
1889, III, 104 and plates), who gives a more detailed account, lie found 
the tond) idled with l)locks oi' stone and the entrance obstructed by a huge 
















heap ol' l)()iil<l<'r>. on siinnouiitiii.L;- wliicli obstaclo lir toiiiid another mass 
which lilh'd the corridor. This second heap liad lieeii displaced since 
ChanipolHonV visit, as the first scene was now cknir and the second hh)cked. 
The rest of the tonih was lilled with rnhliisli to \ai-ving- lieights, as can be 
seen by the scenes ])ublislied in his report. Tlie h)nL;- iiiscrii)tioiis on the 
inner si(U' o\' tlie (h)or-jainbs were copieil to within a few feet of tlie lironnd, 
as were also the hieratic texts on the walls at the entrance, and a routili 
sketcli was made of everything visible in the lirst corridor. A plan of the 
tomb is also given. In this, the nniinished second corridor is regarded as a 
chamber, which Lefebre thonght was intended for a pit. 

In 1885, Eisenlohr bought in Thebes an elliptically-fornied phKpie with 

the name of Itameses, and also a- tiguiv with the nai )f .Mentuherkhejjshef 

{A.Z., XXII, p. oo). On en(iniring wIhmv they came ti-oni. he was led to the 
tomb of Mentuherkhepshef. 

Dvn-ing the season of 1904-O, Air. Carter, while excavating for Mr. Davis, 
dug a trench across the entrance to this tomb, and discovered a toml) of the 
XVIIIth Dynasty, over which the tomb of Mentuherkhepshef had been cut. 
This earlier burial he found to contain the nnimmies of two women. The 
tomb had been [)lundered and contained nothing of interest. As, however, 
tlie tomb of Alentuherkhepshef had never l)een completely cleared, we 
resolved to end our season's work by its excavation, and in the end of 
February, 11)00, we began the clearance. Only tht- i)rojecting portico of the 
entrance was visible, the doorway and the approach being completely blocked 
with debris. The whole tomb was more than half full of great blocks of 
limestone silicate, some of which were so heavy that we had to kt'ep three 
strong men continually at work shifting and rolling them out. 

Across the entrance sloi)e, some three feet from the doorway, a high wall 
of these Hints had been Iniilt, the bottom resting on a thin layer of clean 
white limestone chips ; in tliis an entrance had been left, and the tomb may 
have been eithei- filled with large boulders or with a series of similar 
barricades since the ([uantities of large stones in the corridor could not have 
been introduced by chance. 

The plan and construction of the toml) do not ditier from tlie general tyi»es 
of the tombs of tlie XXth Dynasty. A long level slope leads down to a large 
doorway, Avhich opens into a long corridor. Beyond this a second corridor, 
with two side recesses, liad been begun but was iu'ver finished. Here an 
oblong pit had been .sunk in the floor in which the munnny was placed, and 
the pit was then covered with tiat limestone slabs level with the floor. 



The ciitraucc to the toiiil) ivseml^les in size that of tlic tomb of Raniesos 
Xct'cr-ka-ra (No. 1) in tlic valley), as was noticed by Letebre {A.Z., XXIII, 
p. 12-")), tlic doorway beiu.Li- of ,iireat lieiiilit and l)readtli, and .tiiving a most 
imposing appearance. The long ])road sIojk' leading down to this is a level 
plane without steps ; the sides are covered with a tine white stucco, 
undecorated. The overhanging jtortico to the door is ])lain, l)eing only 
covered with stucco on the miderside ; the linttd also is unornamented, l)ut 
whitened in the same way. The outer sides of tlie jaml)s are covered w ith 
white stucco, being undecorated except for a few feet at the bottom, where 
large rough hieroglvphs outlined in red give the titles of the ]>rince. The 
inner sides, however, are each completely covered with thi'ce vertical lines of 
hieroglyphs, .solid l)lack on a white background e.\ce}it where, on the northern 
jand), mention is made of a red l)ull and the hieroglyphs are iu red. 
lines of hieroglv])hs come down to within two feet of the ground : in tlie 
space below are painted two cobras on each side, tliose on the right bearing 
the names of Isis and Nephthys, and those on the left the names of Serg and 
Xeith. face the entrance, and .spit hre at all intruders. 

The long corridor has scenes painted down each side on a white stucco 
background, the I'oof being left ]»ure white. It may be here noticed that the 
stucco used throughout the toml) is of a very tine (piality, and has been 
levelled with the greatest ])ossibIe accui'acy, thus giving a jjcrfect surface for 
the j)aintings. 

On each side of the corridor at the entrance is [)ainted iu thick black 
outline the half of a large folding-door ; this does not reach (piite to the 
bottom or top of the doorway in either case. On these leaves are painted in 
black hieratic characters (on the left) the l-V.lth chapter of the Hook of the 
Dead, and (on the right) the r23rd chai)ter with two other short lines. 

The length of the corridor is tlien })ainted with different tableaux, seven 
on each wall. In each of these, the prince is seen making offerings to a 
deity. Beginning the ffrst scene, and .separating each of the following, is a 
long vt'rtical line of coloured hieroglyphs on a yellow groiuid. The tableaux 
do not entirely co\er the surface of the wall, a l)lank space of some feet 
being left between the toj) and the ceiling. 

Left Wall. — Seme 1. 

The prince, dres.sed in a long transparent robe reaching down to the ankle 
and with large wide sleeves, over which is a more ojiatjue garment, and 
wearinu' the side-lock of hair on his wiu", stretches out his hands in adoration 


of Osiris, Ijord of Mtcriiitv, hcforc wjioiii stands a doiiMc altar with oH'crings 
of l)rea(I, iiicat. fruit, and Howcrs. IJotli the ])riiic('. who is wcariiiti- sandals, 
and also tlic altar seem to stand on a hcd of sand, whilst Osiris and tlic 
rcniaininn' scenes in the tondi, in which the prince walks 1)ai'efoote(l, are 
npon a thin Avhite line, laid on the sand, which represents the ih)or. 

Behind the prince is a 1 on u,- vertical line of colonred ]iierofily])lis on a yellow 
gronnd, with an inxocation to Osiris for the |s^~M ^^ \ M-'^-^'^i^ 

Before the ]irince are two vertical lines of hiero,uly]»lis painted in u'rey on 
yellow hackjii'ound, uivini;- the titles of the prince : 

Q D 

Before the figure of Osiris is a sint^ie veitical line of ,iiivy hiei'oii-ly]»hs on 
a yellow ground, w itli the name and titli's of Osiris. •' Lord of Eternity." 
Behind Osiris is a \-ertical line of coloured hieroglyiihs, with an invocation 
for the ])rince. who here receives his full titles : 


Seem' 2. 

The prince holds a vase with outstretcheil hands, and pours a lihation on 
an altar standing before Ptah-Tonnen, Father of the tiods. Over the prince 
is a vertical line of grey hieroglyphs on a yellow ground, wdth the titles : 
" Hereditary Prince. Boyal Scribe, General Barneses Mentulierkhepshef." 

Over the god is a \ertical line of hieroglyphs with his name. Behind the 
god is a vertical line of coloured liieroglyphs with an invocation to Osiris for 
a. gift of cooling water to the " Hereditary Prince, Royal Scribe, Royal Son of 
"His Body, Beloved of Him, Chief of His Ma.jesty, Ohief Ins])ector of Troops, 
" Ptanieses Mentulierkhepshef.'" 

Scene ^3. 

The ]»rince holds in Ins left hand a vase which he otters to Jvhonsu-em- 
uas-nefer-hete]), a hawk-headed man wearing the crescent and lull moon on 
his head, and holding the <uikh and hcw sceptre. The prince bears the title 
of " Chief hereditary Prince of the two Lands, great Ins])ector of Troops." 

A line of liieroglyphs behind the god is an invocation for the Osirian, the 
Royal Scribe, great lns])ector of Trooi)s, Jiameses ^lentuherkhepshef 



Scene 4. 

Tlic })i'iiic(' oH'cr.N a vase to the diodik's.s JJast, living Lady of tlie two Lands, 
bofoi'c wlioni stands a table of otf'cvings. She wears a snake-encircled disk 
on licr head, and liolds the (tnUi and a lon,Li- stafl'. 

The i)rince bears his usual titles. Uehind tlie goddess is a long invocation 
to Aniset for the " Chief hereditary I'l'ince of the two Lands, eldest son of the 

"King himself ( \. ^|'^ f|[ 27^''^"^'' ^^^'lo^'^^""! o^" I'i'"- <"hief Tnspectoi' of 
"Troops of llis .Majesty, Itanicses Mentuhei'khe])shef." 

Scene 5. 

Tlie })rinee, holding a hanging cloth and a, symbol ^sr? in his left hand, 
offers it to the genius Amset, before whom stands an altar of offerings. The 
prince bears the titles : 

lieliind the god is an invocation to Osiris for the prince, who bears the 
usual titles with the addition of ^^At 4 i immediately befoiv his name. 

Scene 6. 

The jn'ince ofl'ers a vase to (iebhsennuf, a hawk-headed man, before whom 
stands a table of offerings. The jjrince bears the titles : 

Behind the god is an invocation for the ])rince. 

Scene 7. 

The prince offers the haunch of an ox to Anion l!a, before whom stands a 
table of offerings. Over the prince are the nsnal titles, and Anion Ra is 
called " Lord of the thrones of the two Lands, Leader of the Apts." 

Over the altar are two lines of hieroglyphs, painted in black : 



Right Wall. — Scene 1. 

The prince oiiers at an altar before Ptali. Behind the king is an invocation 
to Osiris in a vertical line of coloured hieroglyphs on a yellow ground. The 

prince bears the titles jj ^ 1 fft S = ^lU i' '^^'^^^^'^^ ^'^*^^' ^'^ ^"''^^'''-^ 
" jjord of Truth. King of the North and South, beautiful of face, Father of 
"the Gods." iiehind Ptah is an invocation for the i)rince. 


Scene 2. 

The in-ince oft'ers incwise to Tliotli, hcibrc wlioiu stands a talilc of oUcrings. 
On the buckle of the belt of the god is the name Nefer-ka-ra, the prenomen of 
Rameses IX. The colouring of the name appears to be contemporary with 
that of the walls of tlie corridor. The prince bears the usual titles, and 
Thotli is called "Lord of the Divine Words, tiiie Sci'ibe of the Divine Enneads." 

Behind Thoth is a vertical line of coloured liieroglyplis witli an invocation 
for the jtrince. 

Scene 3. 

Tlie jirince pours a libation i'rom a rarn-lieaded vase on a table of ofl'erings 
placed before the Ram of Busiris. Tlie prince bears the usual titles, and the 
ram is called "Lord of Deddu, the (Ireat God, living in Truth." 

Behind tin' I'ani is a vertical line of hieroglyi)hs witli tlie titles of tlie prince. 

Scene 4. 

The ])rince, with ujn-aised hands, presents an altar of offerings to Hapi, an 
ape-headed man. The prince bears the titles : 

Hapi is called "Great God, Lord of Amentet." Behind the god is an 
invocation to Anubis for the })rince. 

Scene o. 

The prince praises the genius Duannitef, " the Great God," Ijefore whom 
stands a table of offerings. The god is rein'esentetl with a jackal's head on a 
nuannnfied human body. The prince bears the usual titles. 

B(^hind the god is an invocation to Duamutef for the prince. 

Scene G. 

The prince praises the Goddess Mer Segr, who is represented as a woman 
holding a long staff and wearing the disk and horns. The titles of the 
prince are : 

Behind the goddess is an invocation for the jn-ince who is called : 



Scene 7. 

Tlie prince worships a goddess with a cats hcach wlio wears tlie red disk 
surrounded Iw a ser])ent. She is called : 

]-)(']iind the goddess is an invocation for the prince, wlio is called : 

In the corridor over these scenes are numerous I'ougiily-scratched grathti. 

Situated as the tomb is at the foot oi' a ]iath whicli leads up to a narrow- 
couloir (with numerous graffiti) to the top of a plateau, and over to Deir el 
l>ahri. it would form a Acrv convenient resting-] >lace for guards or plunderers. 

Xot many portable anti([iuties were found in tlic tomb. Several ostraka 
were, however, unearthed in the entrance. The most im}»ortant of these was 
a large block of flinty limestone, with a long religious inscription wiitten in 
black ink, with the cartouches of Uameses lla-hak-niaat ; this was found 
between the stone wall and the entrance, some six feet from the ground, and 
there was consequently notliing to prove its connection with the hlling of the 
tomb, as this part had ]»i-ol)ably lieen dug over several times. From the 
entrance of the tondi. at various levels in the debris, we found the small 
glazed ol)jects of a foundation deposit, also an alaliaster ]ila(|uc with tl 


■-" ^' -" — ■ — .|- , — , , 


and a small bhie glazed platpu' in the sliajie of a cartouche 

with the name lia-hak-maat ; several small Ijeads were also found. 

In the entrance filling was found a slijj of limestone with the cartouches 
of Rameses Ra-kheper-maat. A few fragments of pottery vases were found 
in and near the burial pit, also the u])])er ])art of a lirokeii munany. 

Several ft-agments of a long stela of a ^■edem ns/i in "The IMace ot Truth 
{i.e., Theban Necropolis) named Hay were found in various jiarts of the tomb ; 
they all join together and ht another piece found in the Coptic midden 
outside the tomb of Rameses TV (No. 2 in the valley). This is im])ortant, 
since it furnishes us with a possible solution of how a foundation deposit of 
Rameses IV came to l)e scattered about the tomb of Mentuherkhepshef. It 
should be noticed that, in the earlier part of the season, whilst digging 
outside the tomb of Rameses IV. we found his foundation (lei)osit, which 
onlv consisted of wooden objects, which obviously formed part ot an 
originally larger de])osit. It seems probalde that the tomb of the ])rince 

■mi-: TOiMB OF i!A:\ri;si<;s >ri;xTunERKnEPSHEF. 29 

was used as a caravanserai hy various toiiili rnhhcrs, sitiKited as it is at what 
must have been the (|iiickest road to and IVoiii the \alley, and it sccius not 
unlikely that tlic rohhcrs were mLia.ucd in iilnndcrinu', amongst others, the 
tomb of Kameses 1\'. Hay s slcla snllcrcd in nnich the same way as the 
deposit, as we have already st'eii. 

In 1885, Lefebre ])nblished in the Zeitscliri/t Jilr ^if/. Sprache (vol. XXlll, 
p. 125) his theories for supposing that this Mentuherkliei)shef was not the same 
prince as the Mentuherkhepshef sliowii amongst the sons of Rameses III on 
the list at Medinet Habu (/>./).. Ill, 214). The facts on which lie relied 
were the great resemblance in structure and ]»lan between the tombs of 
Rameses Nefev-kau-ra and this tomb, the stucco used being similai'. and the 
same texts being found in both. 

He ])ointed out that Mentuherkheitshef is si.x: on the list of Rameses III, 
whilst in his tomb he is called " Ehlest son of His Majesty" and "Crown 
Prince." From these facts he considered that the Mentuherkhepshef of the 
tomb is the eldest son of ]\ameses Nefer-kau-ra. This theory receives the 
strongest possible supi)ort from tlie hnding of the name of Itameses Xefer- 
ka-ra on one of the ])aintings in the tonil). 

The i)robable meaning of this cartouche is that the tomb was painted 
(luring the reign of Rameses Nefer-kau-ra, and that, therefore, the prince 
died in that reign. He is given the title of " Eldest son of His Majesty" and 
'■ Crown Prince," and " His Majesty " can refer to no one else but the 
reigning monarch. 







(TO.MB No. 56.) 

About the -ird of .Taimary, 1008, the natural coiii'se of our work led us to 
exi)lore the small side valley whicli leads to the touih of Ameuliotei) II. We 
had already explored tlie south side of the valle}-, and, beginniuii' iio^v at 
the western extremity, we dug- along the north side of the mound of rook 
which is alread}^ occupied ))y the well known tomb of Rameses VI (No. 0). 

At tlie dejjth of tliirteen feet lielow the ])resent surface of water-laid 
rul)liisli we found tlie nioutli of a vertical sliaft. For a dei>th of live feet 
this was cut througii debris, wliicli was held back on three sides of the shaft 
liy roughly built walls of limestone chips, the third side being formed by 
the rock itself. Below this it was cut vertically to a dei>th of Hfteen feet in 
the solid rock of the valley liottoni. 

At the Ijottom of tlie sliaft (8 feet long ])\' ■'> feet (J inches liroad by 
2U feet 4 inches deep) a doorway (-t feet 7 inches l)road by (5 feet 11^ inches 
high) o})ens to the north into a, large room of a curious shape, the north 
wall having been cut with .several corners as if the chamber were unfinished. 

The room is 26 feet 2 inches in lireadth, the length along the west wall 
is Id feet U^ inch, in the centre 14 feet, and along the east wall 1(» feet 
4^ inches. The height of the chamber is lU feet 1 inch on the south to 
10 feet o inches on tlie north. The shaft was entirely hlled with washed-in 
debris, and we found on removing this that the chamber was more or less 
tilled with the same material to a depth of forty-one inches against the west 
wall. Beginning on the west we remo\-ed this rubbish in level layers until 
we came to within a. few inches of the rock tioor. Here, against the west 
wall, wx' tirst found a large 2«'ttery.vase and two vases in alabaster, one of 
globular shape and the other a- jiointed vase with cylimlrical neck, and 
handles in the form of deer heads. Part of a stand, also of alabaster, still 


adhered to the hottom of the hitter. Tlie pottery vase, which wa.s cvlindrieal 
ill shape with long wide neck and two liaiidh's. was tilled with fragments 
of vases of white gla/X'd composition, inlaid in ])nrple glaze witli the 
cartoiiclies of Setui II. and fragments of three alabaster vases, one with the 
cartouches of Setui II and another witli those of Uaiueses II. Slightly to the 
north and at a level of six and a-half inches from the gi'ound was a stratmii 
about a half-inch thick of broken gold leaf and stucco, covering an area of 
some four square feet. On the southernmost edge of this was an indis- 
criminate heap of gold and silver ornaments, l)ea(ls, and small stone objects. 

To the right and left of these were scattered numerous small curls in blue 
glazed composition, and some large plaipies of the same material with 
modelled nndulating lines. These are all jtrobably i)art of a woman's wig. 
These glazed ol)iects w'ere also scattered over the greater ])art of tlie stucco 

To the east of this, and at a level of twelve inches from the ground, was 
lying a plain rudely cut al;il)aster iishabti. 

Against the south wall, at the same level, was a vase, ])eariiig both 
cartouches of Setui II inlaid in lilue, and against the north wall, also at 
the .same level, Mas a large pottery cylindrical vase with long wide neck and 
handles, full ol'rul)bish and a few ashes. 

Almost opposite tlie doorway, and at a level of nine and eight inches 
respectively ab()ve the floor, were the remains of a similar jiottery vase, and 
an alabaster vase with the throne name of Kameses II inkud in blue. All 
the objects found are flealt with in detail below by ^M. Daressy. 

The u])])er rubbish in the chamber consisted of limestone chi]»])ings and 
mud, evidently washed in by water ; but the lower level on which the objects 
rested (si.\ to twelve inches above floor level) was, apparently, lighter dust 
consolidated by water. And it seems ])robalile that the tomb had remained 
open for some time, during which this light dust had accumulated on tlie 
floor before the various objects were deposited here, and tliat later the 
heavier rubbish liad been washed in and effectively concealed the entrance 
to the shaft. Whether the objects were deposited here on tlie usurpation of 
Tauosrit's tomb by Setnekht, or are jiart of a robbers' haul, it is impo.ssible 
to sav. 










1. Gold Crown, wcighinu- '.)'J p;raninies, forniL'd of a iiai'iwv l)aii(l. -I milli- 

iiu'tR's ill lircadtli, and m 'IT-") in diameter. Tlie circle is pierced 
at irregular intervals, varying from 25 to 4.> millimetres, with 
sixteen holes, employed for nttaching ornanients in the form of 
flowers, of which fourteen lia\(' been found. The flowers are made 
in two ])ieces. The corolla, which measures .'3 centimetres in diameter, 
and is slightly concave, is comi)Osed often petals, hollow in the centre 
and soldered at the edges, with rounded tijis ; it is staiii])ed out of 
gold foil. Four of the petals 1 (car the royal cartouches; two of them, 
separated hy another, which is uninscribed, jiresent the nomen 

The jietals o]iposite these have the name of Queen Tauosrit 

f ^'^"' l"^^^ J facing the ojtposite way. 

Behind the corolla is a round-headed kiiol), 21 millimetres in 

diameter, wliicli re})rcs('iits the mass of })istils. To this is attached 

a ring intended to hold the metal wire that I'astened the rosette to 

the crown ; as this ring is larger than the hole, it cannot have fitted 

into it, and the flowers, therefore, must have been movable when 

attached to the crown. 

I'late — (iokl Diadem of (,)ueeii Tauosrit. Flowers as found : Coloured I'late — 
liings and Ornaments, Gold Rvacelets and Ornanients. 


2. Pair of gold Ear-pendants, com])osed of two principal parts. The 

upper ]>art is in two [lieces, each formed of n disc, with a tube 
fixed to the centre of the under side. The two tubes are striated 
and fit into each other, maintaiiiinii' an interval of ol millimetres 


betwcH'ii the two ilisi's. One of the i-oundcd viuls, wiiich must liave 
docorated tlie outside of tho car, is similar to tlic rosettes on the 
crown. Tlie tlower, wliicli forms a lioHow, lias ei^it petals sH,ii'htly 
concave with rounded ti]is ; the diameter is 4o millimetres : four of 
the petals dis[>osed crossways hear the nomeu or jirenomeu of Setui II. 
The knoh fixed helow is 8 millimetres in diameter. The other, 
which was placed hehiud the lobe of the ear, is, oir the contrary, 
convex ; the diameter is D m "tiT. Tlie disc is strengthened I))^ a 
double border of tubes, 1 millimetre in diameter; that on the outside 
is ]il;iiii, the inner one is striated. The centi'e of the is 
oriiamente(l with a tlattish knob, surrounde(l by three gold threads, 
the middle one of which is grooved and has the apjiearance of a milled 
edge. Between the knob ami the (_'dge the two cartouches of Setui II 
are engraved, .somewhat loiighly. 

The lower i)art of the pendant is comjio.sed of a doulile pkupie in the 
form of a trapezium, lu '^)'-VJ in height, <) m 'O:^.} broad at the to]), 
and U m '0'S2 at the lower end. At tlie top of this are two striated 
rings through wdiich are passed the tran.sverse tulx'S attached to the 
discs. The toji of the i)la(iue is cut away to a depth of m 'til, and 
the .same in breadth, to allow room for the lower tip of the ear. (Jn 
each side the two cartouches of Setui II are engraved, below this 
plaque a horizontal bar is hxed to sujiport seven jiendants, tliree large 
and four small, difl'ering only in size, which is respectivelv U m 'Oj-S 
and m UUi. They are in the form of pomegranates : the stem is 
a small striated tube ; the fruit — a hollow riblied ball — has beneath it 
a tiny wide crown. The larger balls are (J m '02i wide, tlie smaller 
ones m 014. These ornaments, of which the total length is U m "loo, 
notwithstanding their weight (tlie two together weigh l-")-) gr. 15), 
were undoubtedly hung from tlie ear, held in position by the two 
discs, while the plaque and its pendants hung down the side of the 
face. We need not marvel at the thickness of the transverse tubes ; 
the mummy of J\Ia-lier-pra has the lobes of the ears ])ierce(l with holes 
15 millimetres in diameter, and there are others far larger. 

Plate — Ceremonial Wig Ornaments (black and colours). 

3, Pair of Ear-studs, in electrum and various stones. — The ring which 
passed through tlie ear is hollow, and measures U m '014 in diameter. 
It is a torus, of the extreme breadth of t) m '048, jienannular, 


witli ;iii (i|HMiiii,u •") iiiilliiiictrcs in Icn.ntli to admit tlic lolic of the ear. 
The peiiphery is oriiaiiieiiteil with a small hvist. 'J millimetres in 
breadth, also in elerti'um oi' a nnxtinc ol'iiold and silvei'. The openinu- 
was liehind the ear ; on the lower ]»art of the rini:' six little rinus are 
to lie seen, indicating' that oriiiiiially there wei'c pendants attachetl, 
th<' length ol' which we do not know. We can only su^_ii-est hy[)0- 
theticall}' that various heads, in carnelian, lajiis, and liold, found 
during the clearing out of the tomh, may have helonged to them. 
Some models of flowers, open or closed, proliahly formed the termina- 
tion of these pendants ; the first of these, U m '01 (i in height, is 
com])Osed of a canipanulate flowei', (J m '014 in diamet<'r, in l)lue 
glazed jiottery, iinely incised on the outside, and mounted on a, 
three-jiointed calyx in electrum ; the second, " ni 'Oil' in height, 
consists of a pyriform carnelian bead which represents the undeveloiK'd 
))U(1, enclosed in a calyx similar to those of the full-blown flowers. 

IJiiigs : Plate — Oiiiaineots uf Queen 'I'aiiiisrit. I'ldwcrs: I'late — I'eiulants and 
Carnelian Amulets. 

4. Ear-ring, in gold and enamel.— Penannular, of torus form and 

elliptical section, the axes being KJ and 10 millimetres. The extreme 
diameter is m '02.5, and the sjiace left for the ear is only G milli- 
metres. At the side o])posite the oi)ening, a rectangle, m "022 by 
t) m 'Oil encloses the name of (^leen ^'^|n<=>, in a cartouche, 
surmounted by two feathers, outlined inline gold cloisoiis, standing out 
on the hollow l)ase, which was filled in wdtli plaques of hard stone or 
glazed pottery, hxed with blue mastic. 

Coloured I'late — llings and (Jrnanients. 

5. Pair of Ear-rings, in electrum.— The hollow rings, m -021 in diameter, 

are composed of a torus of triangular section with rounded corners, one 
of the bases — the largest — forming the outer surface. The central 
cavity is only 7 millimetres in diameter. 

Plate — Ornaments of tjueeu Tauosrit. 


6. Parts of a gold Necklace.— The mununy nmst have been jirovided with 

a neckhice, of which only certain i)arts remain. 


{</.) Two bai's for fastening, Icngtlis U ni "OoO. Eacli is fonnecl of 
a gold pLKjue, of i'lli|itical cnrve — the axes of wliicli are 8 and 3 milli- 
metres — incompletely closed. At the end of tlie greater axis, holes are 
pierced at 2, 1(», IH, 27, -Vo and 52 niillinietres from tlic toji, to liold 
the threads on which tlu; beads were threaded. 

Plate — Pla<iues and Ornaments. 

{h.) Sjihcrical heads, in gold tiligree, 7 millimetres in diameter. 
They are made in two halves, each of wliich present six small rings 
surrounding the hole intended for the thread, and the two are joined 
by a wire so notched as to reseml:)le a milled edge. 

(c.) Pendants in the form of fruit. These are beads similar to the 
])receding, but with the addition at one end of a small hollow stem, and 
at the other of a spreading calyx formed of six small rings. Their 
mean height is 2."3 millimetres. 

(h) and ((•) : Plate — Gold Necklace of Queen Tauo.srit; Fragment of Mud with 
Gold Pleads in position. 

7. Sacred Eyes, in electrum. Four amulets or necklace ornaments in the 

form of the sacred eye, "Zf '^^, about U m ■*)2S in length. They 
are hollow ; the first has two faces, on the others the eye is stamped 
on one face oidy, the other side of the plaque is ]ilaiu. A ring for 
suspension is fixed to tlie upper part. 

Plate — Plaques and C)rnaments of Queen Tauosrit. 

8. Heart, in electrum. — Anndet m Uo in height, in form of the heart- 

shaped vase '0'. couii)osed of two jiieces of white gold foil stamped out 
and joined at the edges, with a ring at the top. 

Plate— Plaques and Ornaments. 

9. Gold Shells.— Two small shells, or cui)els, height U m -022, breadth 

m 017, concave, without ornamentation, with a ring at top and 

Plate — Plaques and Ornaments. 

10. Thoueris, in gold.— Five figurines of the lii})})opotanuis goddess, which 

liave served as |)arts of a collar or bracelet. One is 11 millimetres in 
height, the others 18 millimetres ; in all, the goddess is turned to the 
right ; they are stamped on one face only, the l)ack is jilain. 

Plate — Amulets ami Piings of t^hieen Tauosrit. 


11. Hathor Heads, in gold.— Tliroc small ])i('cos fov suspension ro])rosenting 
tlic liead ol' the goddess Ilutlior, full face, M, with the two curved 
l^lnits of hair framing the face. One of these is 1-5 niillimetrcs in height, 
and lias no crown ; on tlic two others, only lo miUimetres in height, 
the head is surmounteil witli a small crown : only one side is stamped, 
the otliei' side is plain. 

Plate — Amulets and Eings. 

12. Emblem of Eternity.— The hieroglyphic sign (^ summarily carved in 

gold foil, oidy U m ULS in height, represents a kneeling man holding 
two pahii branches with curved tojjs. It is an emblem, and a jwayer 
for millions of years. 

Plate — Amulets and Eings. 

13. Flies, in gold.— Four small flies ; somewhat careless work. One is 

l-^> millimetres in length, and has striated wings , the others are 
only 11 millimetres, the wings are ])lain, and it is the body that is 
striped. The Hy is a .synd)ol which is not yet thoroughly explained ; 
some large flies found with the jewels of Queen Aah-hote}», hanging 
from a chain, liave Ijeen regarded as a form of decoration. 

Plate — Amulets and Eings. 

14. Papyrus Blossoms, in gold.— Three ornaments foi- a necklace or 

bracelet, 12 millimetres in height, representing a hanging papyrus 
flower J, ; the surface is covered witli divergent lines, while the lotut 
Hower, wliich has the same outline, shows only .3 or 5 ])etals. The 
back is plain. 

Plate — Amulets and Eings. 


15. Pair of Bracelets.— In silver or electrum. The two plaques which 
form each bracelet are joined with a hinge at one en<l, and are 
fastened at the other end with the same arrangement, and a movable 
pin. Their diameter is U m -058. One of tlie plaques is rectangular, 
U m Vis in heiglit, and is decorated with hve i)arallel bandsof 



oniaiiioiitation ; in tlie centre are dotted circles •' • ■ , at each side two 

rows ofclievrons <«« . The other i»la(|iie expands in the centre to 

a widtli of ni MMj^. Witliiii a line which follows the edge a scene 
is stamped and engraved. On eacli side is ;i l)on(piet of flowers 
with banderoles. To the right Setiii 11. whose two cartonches are 
inscribed, is seated on a cliair. high-hacked, with lions' feet, and 
the sides decorated with the gronp syndwiic of the union of the two 
regions, ^^ . He wears a wig of many rows, the nraeus on his 
forehead, and a large ])Iaited dress. In his left hand he holds 
an end)lem composed of the signs |^ , '■millions of years " and ^, 
"stability." With the right he presents a cup, which is lilled by 
"the great royal wife" l^^f^jTT]. who stands I)efore him, 
the ui-aeus on her forehead, clothed in a large transi)arent folded 
dress. The (lueen holds in her left liaiid the vase 5 , and in the 
other a lotus tlowei'. 

Plate — Black and Coloured : Silver Bracelets of Queen Tauosrit. 

16. Pair of gold Bracelets. -The ring is solid, of square section, disjjosed 

lozenge fashion, measuring (i millimetres diagonally, tOAvards the ends 
it tapers, and is reduced to a thick wiiv which forms a spiral, curving 
back on itself In addition, these ends are covered for 25 millimetres 
of theii- length with another gold wire arranged sjoirally in close curves, 
which, following the line of the principal wire, forms a lusette 
13 millimetres in diameter. 

The bracelet is not absolutely circular ; in one direction it metisures 
m "002 in diametei-, and in another only U m Oo-S. 

Plate — Ornaments of Queen Tauosrit. Coloured Plate — Gold Bracelets and 

17. Pair of Bracelets, in electrum.— Hollow rings of triangukir section. 

The side nearest the arm (measuring m 'UlS) has attached to it at 
both edges gold wires Avith the milled-edge pattern. 

Plate — Ornaments of Queen Tauosrit. 

18. Pair of Bracelets for a Child.— Two bracelets that are merely thick gold 

wires, 4 millimetres in diameter, with free ends tiled off: they nnist 


luivc liccii twisted round the wrists of ;i cliild. for tlic widtli of the 
riiiu' docs not exceed 4.'5 iiiillinietres. 
I'kte — Uniaineiits of (^uecii Taudsrit. 

19. Bracelet, in electrum. — A thin tlexihle itliMjue, O m loC) hy m 022, 
the ends .slii;litly rounded and ])ierce(l with a hole, to allow a wire to 
jtass throniih and fasten the hracelet. 


20. Gold Ring — Cylindrical ring. 18 niillinietres high and IS millimetres in 

exterior diameter. Inside is engraved a hawk with outspread wings 
^^ holding in its claws the flal)elhim, emblem of the ])rotection 
which tlie god accorded to tlie king: l)etween the extremities of 
tlie wings tlie cartoiiclie of Setni II is placed vertically W (jij'' ^°|. 
Outside, the same decoration is obtained by means of thin gold 
cloisons ; these are raised and contained inlays of lilue and green 
glass. The bird of Horus has, in addition, tli(» solar disc on the head, 
and the cartouclie containing the preiiomen of 8etui II is reproduced 
on the back. The edges of the ring are decorated with a- double gold 
wire, the first is of tlie milled-edge pattern, the other at the outer 
edge is plain. 

Coloured Plate — Eings aud Ornaments. 

21. Gold Ring.— This ring is U m -02 in diameter. The place of the bezel 

is taken by a small ]ila(|ue, 21 millimetres in height, carved to form 

the signs g Iw}" i\'^^, rd-usei-mat-setep-n-nmen-nier-tanen, which 
is a variant of tlie i)renomen of Kanieses II. Each sign is covered with 
gold leaf cut into the same form and finely engraved. The remainder 
of the ring, m '011 wide, is in open work, being made in filigree 
which represents, four times over, the group 1x1. 

Coloured Plate — Eings and Ornaments. 

22. Gold Ring.— The ring, whicli measures 23 millimetres, is formed of four 

gold wires, i)arallel and slightly separated from each other for half 
the circumference ; for the other lialf they have at first a gold wire 



wound rouiid tliciii in a spiral, they tlicn divcriiv sliglitly, and are 
affixed to ]tla(]ues on wliicli are soldered two small gold plaits, 
separated and bordered by striated wires : linally, tlie wires end in 
eight small ovals arranged in two rows. ]'■'> millimetres in lieight, 
inlaid Avitli a variety of stones, carnelian, lapis, and feldspar. 
Coloured I'late — IJiiigs and Ornanients. 

23. Gold Ring.— Double linger ring, l'> millimetres in diameter, comijosed 

of two semi-cylindrical rings, which l)roa(len and foi'm two tiat 
cartouches, each of which contains the name of (Jueen Taiiosrit, 
surmounted by the disc and two feathers ^. The engraving leaves 
much to be tlesired. 

Colonred Plate — l!ii)i;s and Ornaments. 

24. Gold Finger Ring.— -Ring of the same tyjie as the preceding. The 

two rings are flat ; in the cartotiches, arranged side l)y side, there is 
nothing to be seen except a uraeus crowned with two feathers D , and 
some meaningless lines. 

Coloured Plate — II'uv^h and Ornaments. 

25. Gold Ring with a Scarab. — Finger ring — the mean diameter is i(j milli- 

metres — made of gold wire, thicker in the middle than at the ends ; 
but the ends are encircled \)y another finer wire, and these two 
twisted wires traverse a scaral). The scarab is in lapis lazuli, 
11 millimetres in length, inscribed on the flat side with the name of 
Tauosrit ; it revolves on its axis, and is set in gold. 

Coloured Plate — Ilings and Ornaments. 

26. Gold Ring with a Scarab. — Finger ring, similar to the ])receding. The 

scarab, 12 millimetres long, is in white glazed jittery, with a gold 
setting, and also bears the name of the Queen. 

27. Finger Rings for Children. — Two rings of the same type as the two 

preceding, but evidently intended for children, as they are only 
1 centimetre in diameter. One has lost the scarab, which liad a gold 
setting ; the other has lost both scarab and setting. 

Plate — Amulets and Kings. 



28. Plaques with Cartouches.— Thirteen ivctaii-iilar phii|iics, in i^okl leaf, 

111 '(HAS ])\ 111 1)17. st;iiii]M'(l with the t\v(i cartoiiclics of .Setui II 

facing cac'li otlicr vcrticallw siiriiioiiiitcd l>y the disc and fratlicrs Yti- 
Two slender iiai's, ending in rings, are attaclied to the hacdv of tlie 
plaqnes near the toj) and tlie bottom, and tlie rings are placed in 
siicli a manner that the jibnines must luiAe folloAved each other 
vertically. It is ])ossil)le that they decorated the ends of a girdle. 

Plate — Plaques and Oniaiiumts. 

29. Figurines of Animals.— Four figurines of couchant animals, from I 1 to 

lo millimetres long and jiierced through tlieii- length. The hi'st 
reiavseuts a lion, with the tail twisted over to the head ; the second 
appears also to he a lion, hut without a tail ; the third apparently 
rejavsents ii dog; the fourth is a cow wearing the head dress of 
Hatlior — the disc and feathers. 

Plate — Amulets and t;int;s. 

30. Plaque from the handle of a Mirror. A ilexihle leaf of electrmn, 

elliptical, with axes of S-l- ;nid :][) millimetres. It is pierced in the 
centre with a hole 11 millimetres in maximinn width and 3 centi- 
metres in length, for tlu' tang of a mirror to pass through. The 
mirror — a metal — would he ikstened to a wooden handle, and 
over this, at the toj), the ]»la(iue would be fixed, held by two nails. 

Plate — Ornaments of Queen Tauosrit. 

31. Hands in silver.— Two hollow hands in silver, m -L") in length and 

m UT-l: in breadth. They are beatt'n out of silver foil into the shape 
of hands either of a child or of a statue. The upper side has in fact 
been summarily stamped into the form of fingers, but the other side has 
been left plain. This class of object has not been foinid hitlierto. It 
is possible that they clothed the hands of a nunnmy, or that they were 
fixed on the cover of a coffin of human form. 
Plate — Silver Hands Covering's. 


32. Silver Sandal.— .Small model of a .suiidal. m ]'■) louy:, and U m U-tS 

wide. The sole is grooved crossways in imitation of plaited grass ; the 
Ijand that passes between the toes and the strap over the instep are 
left plain. The front ol' the sandal is ciii'ved up and turns backwards 
over the foot, ending in a point. 
Plate — Silver Sandul. 

33. Ibis in carnelian.— i'laque of carnelian, ."JT millimetres in height and 

.■)() in breadth ; carved in form of an ibis standing with the beak resting 
on the feather ^. There is a ring for snspension on the head of 

the bird. 

Plate — I'enilants ami Canieliaii Amulets. 

34. Hathor Heads in carnelian. Two i)la(pies of carnelian, carved, 

.38 millimetres high and 22 broad. They rejnvsent the head of the 
goddess Hathor, fnll face, surmounted by a low, wide crown, with a 
uraeus on eacli side bearing the disc on the head, and placed over the 
basket ^37 . One is i)ierced at the toj) ; the other, having been broken 
wliile being carved, has a. small Ijronze ring in ])lace of the ])ierced 

Plate — Pendants and Carnelian Amulets. 

35. Amon in carnelian.— Phupie of carnelian. o2 millimetres in height, very 

sunnnarily carved with a figure of Amon seated on his throne, the two 
feathers on his head, and holding the sceptre. 

Plate — Pendants and Carnelian Amulets. 

36. Head of a Serpent in carnelian. Amulet in form of a serpent's head, 

46 millimetres long, carved out of carnelian. 

Plate— Pendants and Carnelian Amulets. 

37. Carnelian Bead.— Carnelian bead, of a hjug almond form, not pierced, 

length 36 millimetres, breadtli 11 millimetres. 

Plate — Pendants and Carnelian Amulets. 

VASES. 1.5 


A CERTAIN nmnlx'i- of vases Iiavc Ika'Ii Rroiistvuctcd from among tlie numerous 
fragments of ala,l)aster and pottery found in " Tlie Unnamed Tomb." Four 
of these are worthy of special attention, and are reproduced on the Phites 
annexed to this vohime. 

I. Vase in glazed faience, of the customary form emjjloyed for lustral vases, 

M m -J:^.") ill height, witli a maximum diameter of t) m 12 and 

(J m 01)2 at tlie to]». The pottery is aliout d m 008 thick, of 
yellowish and fairly line clay. The interior is ungiazed, lint the 
outside of the is glazed in several colours. Tlie ujiper jiart has 
a white ground, bordered above and below by a, trijile band formed 
of a belt of greyisli bhie, between two Imnds of light blue. On 

this white ground the cartouches of Setui II ( o i ^ i:=i: (] '^^^^ ), and 
( l!^ ( [ ■" ^^ I ] are engraved witli greyi.'^li blue lines, arranged 

verticallv over tlie sign of gold ("^^, and surmounted l)y the .solar 
disc ; at the sides are two large iiraei, wearing tlie crown of the North 
and the pchent. 

The decoration of the lower part is an imitation of a lotus flower, 
on which the vase is supposed to stand. The four principal petals, 
which are now of greenish hue, were originally light lilue, the inter- 
mediate petals are blue-grey, the third row is light blue. Tlie surface, 
where it is not covcumI liy the flower, is whit(\ 

II. Alabaster Vase, m 'ol in height and m '18 maximum diameter. It 
is ovoid, with a. neck m "065 high, almost straight, with a narrow 
rim at the top, of wdiich the diameter is m "ISo. Two small vertical 
handles, fixed to the sides of the vase, are broken away. The engraved 
decoration was probably worked out in colours, which have now 
disappeared ; round the l^ase of the neck a fine cord is knotted, the 

40 VASES. 

ends, of unequal lengtli, hang in wavy lini'.s, terminating in small 
tassels. To this cord is attaclied a garland of folded leaves, which 
forms a semicircle round the front of tlie vase, froiu wliicli haugs a 
lotns flower aud two buds. 

In the em}>tv space aliovc tlie garland there is engraved the original 

form of tlie ])reuomeu of Itanieses 11 (_g1^-^|— J in a \'ertical cartouche 
placed over tlie f^^\. and surmounted liy tlie disc aiul two feathers 
5T? , flanked l)y tlie uraei witli the crowns of tlie North and the South, 
and wearing the sign of life ^ sns])eiided from their necks. On the 
sides are engraved the two iiza, or solar eyes. 

III. Alabaster Vase, n m l^H in height, of the same form as the pottery vase 
alreadv described. The diameter at the maximum is ni "15, and at 
the top <» m IK). Tlie la-evailing idea emjiloyed in the decoration is 
similar to that of the preceding vase. A cord is knotted round the 
upper jiart, ami the ends decorated witli flowers J^ . To this cord 
is attached a rectangular floral design, whicli covers the u])})er ]»art of 
the front of the vase : the cords are flgured l)y l)ands of checker 
pattern; there are two rows of folded willow leaves [j, and between 
them a row of flowers arranged, full face, and reduced to mere circles. 

Below are the two cartouches of Ranu'ses II, arranged vertically 
side by side over the emblem C>^- and sui'mounted by the solar disc. 

VI. Alabaster Vase, O m lA^ in lieight at the i)resent time, m 14 in 
diameter at the opening, and •» ni 17 at the maximum. The neck, 
() 111 OUo in height, is cylindrical, with a slight rim at the toj). The 
vase is ovoid, and has two lateral handles carved in the form of 
antelope heads, with horns turned back and joined to the neck of the 
vase. These lieads, only one of which now remains, are summarily 
carved ; a round hole below the horns, fllled in with plaster, indicates 
that the handles nuist have been carved separately. 

The lower part of the vase diminishes in diameter two centimetres 
fi-om the base, and was placed in a stand (not figured on the Plate), 
of which only a small part has been found. It presents the appearance 
of a colinnn, with two latin-al curved pieces at the sides. It is 
probable that the decoration of the stand corresponded with the 
handles, and that it was flanked liy two antelope heads. 

U "-' -' 





tirijMiitij r 


Painted by H. H.irolil J 


. ^ 















■v.' vr,R:' I'Niv 


























I — ' 





' f: 



Painted by E Harold Jones 

M^LagaB & Cumming, Edin'' 




i^ASHiiiGIi;^ S^M CSLiiSE 


Fainted by E Harold Jonrs, 

!' Lagan A Cumtning. Edir 



^ LlljflARY ' I 



















PsinT.ed by E Harold Jon>;a 

M'Lagaii i Cumtning. Ed-r 



^& cam 



i I — ^ 
























nmm sanest «i^^^st 































l|*=^'" J 



1 — I 


1 — ( 


t » — t 















1 — 1 





































































LI 8 




) — I 





^'' ^' 


4 ,